Kyrgyzstan country profile

Map of Kyrgyzstan

A Central Asian state bordering China, Kyrgyzstan became independent with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

It has some oil and gas and a developing gold mining sector, but relies on imports for most of its energy needs.

Resentment at widespread poverty and ethnic divisions between north and south have spilled over into violence, and the country's first two post-Soviet presidents were swept from power by popular discontent.

Settled by Kyrgyz tribes from southern Siberia in the 17th century, the area was ruled by various regional powers before coming under Russian, and then Soviet, rule.

Most of its six million people are Turkic-speaking Muslims.

In 2014 Kyrgyzstan shut a US military base which had supplied US troops in Afghanistan with personnel and cargo since 2001. Russia retains a military airbase in the country.


Kyrgyz Republic

Capital: Bishkek

  • Population 6 million

  • Area 199,900 sq km (77,182 sq miles)

  • Major languages Kyrgyz, Russian

  • Major religions Islam, Christianity

  • Life expectancy 67 years (men), 75 years (women)

  • Currency som

Getty Images


President: Sooronbai Jeenbekov

Image copyright Getty Images

Sooronbai Jeenbekov became Kyrgyzstan's fifth president after winning more than 54 percent of the vote in the October 2017 election to replace outgoing leader Almazbek Atambayev.

The 58-year-old was the ruling Social Democratic Party nominee as Mr Atambayev's preferred successor. He ran against 10 other candidates.

The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe described the election as "competitive", but said that "pressure on voters and vote-buying remain a concern".

  • Kyrgyzstan's presidents are restricted to a single six-year term under the current constitution.



1685 - Kyrgyz people settle in the area that is now Kyrgyzstan; area conquered by the Oirats, a Mongol people, after centuries of Turkic rule.

1758 - Oirats defeated by Chinese Manchus and Kyrgyz become nominal subjects of Chinese empire.

Early 19th century - Kyrgyz come under the jurisdiction of the Uzbek khanate of Kokand, to the west.

1876 - Russian forces incorporate what is now Kyrgyzstan into the Russian empire.

1991 - Kyrgyzstan acquires its present name, and declares independence. Askar Akayev is president.

2005 - Mass protests force President Akayev from office in the Tulip Revolution.

2010 - Opposition protests sweep President Kurmanbek Bakiyev from power.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Kyrgyzstan hopes to attract tourists to its wild mountain landscapes

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