Kashmir profile - media
Reporting on Kashmir from both India and Pakistan mainstream media is deeply politicized and reflects the tension between the two countries.
Media in Indian-administered Kashmir are generally split between pro- and anti-secessionist. Local journalists work under strict curfews and also face threats from militant groups. Internet access is sporadic and text messaging services are regularly blocked.
According to a 2015 report by the US-based advocacy group Freedom House, print media are thriving in Indian-administered Kashmir. Local cable TV channels are popular but face bans over the broadcast of certain content.
With the advent of FM stations alongside state-run channels, radio remains an important mass medium, particularly in rural areas.
Mass protests against Indian rule in 2010 also brought about another change in the media landscape with a new generation of voices emerging online providing platforms for public discussion.
- Aftab - leading independent popular Urdu-language daily
- Alsafa - popular Urdu-language newspaper
- Greater Kashmir - leading Srinagar-based English-language online daily
- Kashmir Times - largest circulation
- Kashmir Monitor - English-language online newspaper
- Kashmir Reader - English-language news website
- Rising Kashmir - English-language online newspaper
- Kashmir Uzma - prominent Urdu-language newspaper
- Srinagar Times - Urdu-language privately-owned independent daily
Local cable TV channels:
- SEN TV
- JK Channel
- Take-1 TV
- Wadi TV
- 9 TV
- Doordarshan's Kashir Channel - broadcasts in Urdu and Kashmiri
- Kashmir News Service (KNS)
- Current News Service (CNS)
- Big FM 92.7 - sole private station
According to a 2006 Human Rights Watch report, tight controls on freedom of expression have been a hallmark of government policy in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.
The media are used mainly for propaganda purposes, mainly to highlight the alleged human rights violations in Indian-administered Kashmir.
The creation of independent media has been restricted. Similarly, the only private broadcasting media allowed to operate are FM radio stations but they are limited to only broadcasting entertainment, leaving news and current affairs programmes to state-run radio.
Internet access is also limited given the underdeveloped telecom structure. Many newspapers do not have an internet presence and publication is sporadic.
No foreign media are based in Pakistan-administered Kashmir without the prior permission of the state government.
- Siasat - Urdu-language daily
- Mahasib - Urdu-language daily
- Khabarama - Urdu-language daily
- Kashmir Express - Urdu-language newspaper
- PTV Azad Jammu and Kashmir - a subsidiary of state-owned Pakistan TV Corporation (PTV). Launched in 2004, broadcasts mostly in Urdu, Pahari and Gojri.
- Azad Kashmir Radio (AKR) - government-run service broadcasting from Muzaffarabad and Mirpur
- FM 93 Muzaffarabad and FM 93 Mirpur - community radio run by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC), broadcasting in Urdu and English
- Voice of Kashmir - privately-owned radio station