Japan profile - Media
Japan's broadcasting scene is technologically advanced and lively, with public and commercial media in keen competition.
Media freedom is constitutionally guaranteed, but Reporters Without Borders (RSF) says it has been in decline in recent years. The group says self-censorship is on the increase and many journalists are harassed by officials.
Five TV companies, including public NHK, run national terrestrial networks. Most of NHK's funding comes from licence fees. Many millions of viewers subscribe to satellite and cable pay TV.
News, drama, variety shows and sport - especially baseball - have big audiences. Imported TV shows are not widely shown, but Western influences are apparent in domestic TV fare.
The print sector is influential and highly trusted. National dailies sell in their millions, boosted by afternoon and evening editions. Some newspapers charge for online access.
Around 118 million people were online by 2017, comprising 94% of the population (InternetWorldStats). Line, co-developed between Japan and Korea, is by far the leading social and messaging application. Facebook and Instagram are widely used and Mixi is a home-grown social network.
- Asahi Shimbun - daily, English-language pages
- Yomiuri Shimbun - daily, English-language pages
- Mainichi Daily News - English-language pages
- Sankei Shimbun - daily
- Nikkei Asian Review - English-language pages
- The Japan Times - English-language
- NHK - public, operates General TV, Educational TV. NHK World is a global English-language network
- TV Asahi - national, commercial
- Fuji TV - national, commercial
- Nippon TV (NTV) - national, commercial
- Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS) - national, commercial
- NHK - public, operates news/speech-based Radio 1, cultural/educational Radio 2, classical music-based FM Radio, external service Radio Japan
- Inter FM - Tokyo commercial music station
- J-Wave - Tokyo commercial music station
- Tokyo FM - Tokyo commercial network
- TBS Radio - operated by Tokyo Broadcasting System
- Kyodo - English-language pages
- Japan Today - online news, in English