Anders Behring Breivik trial: Day by day

Anders Behring Breivik arrives in court in Oslo, 22 June Image copyright AFP
Image caption Breivik sought to defend his views on the last day of his trial

The man who killed 77 people in Norway last July has pleaded not guilty to acts of terrorism and mass murder.

Anders Behring Breivik admits carrying out a bombing in the capital, Oslo, and going on a shooting rampage on the island of Utoeya, but denies criminal responsibility.

The prosecution has asked for the 33-year-old Norwegian to be committed to psychiatric care. The defence insists he is sane.

Here is a summary of events in court.

Friday 22 June

The trial ended with defence lawyer Geir Lippestad arguing Breivik should be considered sane, as he had been driven by extreme politics, not violence.

He also asked for his client's acquittal - a request regarded as a formality since Breivik considers his actions were justified.

When Breivik himself got up to speak about his views, relatives of his victims walked out of the courtroom.

The verdict will be announced on 24 August.

The government announced that memorials to Breivik's victims would be built at the two attack sites.

Thursday 21 June

The prosecution outlined its case for recommending that Breivik should not be sent to prison but confined to psychiatric care.

"We are not convinced or certain that Breivik is legally insane but we are in doubt," said prosecutor Svein Holden.

His colleague Inga Bejer Engh said: "We have murderers who have been sentenced to psychiatric care who will probably never get out again."

Tuesday 12 June

A psychology professor called to testify said he believed Breivik was sane.

Svenn Torgersen said he agreed with the conclusions of the second court-appointed psychiatric team.

He identified as a weakness the first report's focus on Breivik's childhood.

Tuesday 5 June

Defence witnesses from the far right backed Breivik's views on Islam in court.

They said Norway was threatened by Muslim immigration, an argument used by Breivik in an attempt to justify his attacks.

However, the speakers did not condone Breivik's attacks.

Breivik's defence said the extremists' testimony proved he was not insane because others shared his views.

Monday 4 June

One of the five judges was caught on camera playing solitaire in court.

In a picture published in Norwegian media, Ernst Henning Eielsen could be seen playing the card game on his computer.

Breivik told the court he had been slighted by Muslims on several occasions during his childhood.

Thursday 31 May

Breivik took stimulants before he launched his deadly attacks, the trial heard.

Expert witness Joerg Moerland, a professor of forensic toxicology, said the killer had taken a cocktail of ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin (ECA).

"You can say that he was lightly to moderately drugged," he added.

Experts in far-right ideology told the trial Breivik's ideas should not be seen as the ramblings of a madman.

Tuesday 29 May

Some of Breivik's former friends testified in court anonymously.

At their request Breivik was removed from the court and watched proceedings from a nearby room.

One former friend told the court how Breivik isolated himself from friends in the years leading to the attacks, and that he "lost the spark of life" and became "less bubbly".

Another former friend said Breivik had worried about his looks and had a nose job in 1999 in order to look more "Aryan". Afterwards Breivik denied this was the case.

Friday 25 May

Norwegian police officers described Breivik's arrest, telling the court he had asked for a plaster to cover up a minor cut and later posed like a bodybuilder when he was stripped of his fake police uniform.

Police superintendent Haavard Gaasbakk described the terror of young Utoeya survivors who had mistaken the arrival of police for Breivik's fellow gunmen.

He also recalled that Breivik said: "You are not the ones I am targeting. I consider you as brothers. It's a coup: I must save Norway from Islamisation."

The court heard from another survivor who came to face-to-face with Breivik but was spared because he reminded the gunman of himself.

Thursday 24 May

Breivik told the court that he will not appeal agaist a guilty verdict if the court finds him sane. He says he wants to be declared to sane to prove he had rational, ideological motives for the killings.

The court also heard more evidence from those who survived the massacre on Utoeya.

One, wheelchair-bound Mohamad Hadi Hamed, 21, told the court how his left arm and his left leg were amputated after he was shot by Breivik.

Another survivor, Einar Bardal, 17, described how he was trying to escape when he heard a loud bang, followed by a loud beeping noise in in his head.

Having shown little emotion during the trial, Breivik acknowledged that the witness testimony was having an effect on him and said: "Today I feel almost mentally damaged after having heard these testimonies."

Wednesday 23 May

Utoeya survivor Tarjei Jensen Bech, 20, likened Breivik to Voldemort, a villain in the Harry Potter novels, saying he had heard him "breathing and hissing" as he approached the spot where he shot and wounded him in the legs.

"I like to say I've had more operations than Michael Jackson," he told the court.

Ylva Helene Schwenke, now 15, described for reporters how Breivik had shot her in the neck and then several more times as she lay bleeding.

"He shoots a 14-year old girl from behind, then shoots me twice in the leg," she said. "That's the most cowardly thing I've ever heard."

Another survivor, 18-year-old Andrine Johansen, told how a boy, Henrik Rasmussen, had thrown himself in the way of bullets meant to kill her.

Tuesday 22 May

In further testimony from Utoeya survivors, Espen Myklebust told the court how he waited in the water to be rescued, after jumping into the lake and swimming out to a boat that was already full of panicking youths.

Mr Myklebust, who suffered a superficial bullet wound in the back, said Breivik was "calm as a human being can be" during the attacks. "He walked around as if nothing had happened."

Another witness, Cathrine Troennes Lie, told the court about the last time she had seen her 16-year-old sister before Breivik shot and killed her.

Monday 21 May

The trial continued to hear from survivors wounded during the shooting spree on Utoeya.

One, Afghan-born Hussain Kazemi, told the court he saw the waters of the lake around the island red with blood after the attack.

During the attack, Mr Kazemi said he briefly met Breivik, who, posing as a policeman, calmly asked him if he knew the whereabouts of the gunman. Mr Kazemi escaped by jumping into the lake as Breivik opened fire.

Another witness, Martha Fevang Smith, 18, told the court how she survived being shot in the head while Breivik calmly and deliberately killed 10 others lying nearby.

The trial also heard a recording of a panicked emergency call made by witness Renate Taarnes as she hid in a toilet in the camp's cafe while Breivik shot 13 people there.

Wednesday 16 May

In further evidence from Utoeya survivors, Ingvild Leren Stensrud, told the court that she only lived because she hid under another victim's body as Breivik killed 13 people in the youth camp's cafe.

After emerging from her hiding place behind the piano, Ms Stensrud then used the dead girl's phone to try to call emergency services.

She also described hearing what she believes was Breivik uttering a battle cry, and that he made sure his victims were dead by delivering a control shot to their heads one by one.

Tuesday 15 May

The court heard from more people who survived Breivik's attack on Utoeya island.

Marta-Johanne Svendsen, who was shot in the arm, described hiding with others in a building known as the school house, and hearing twigs snap as Breivik tried to get in. She said she heard "the worst screaming".

Another, Ina Rangoenes Libak, told how she survived by hiding behind a piano in the café building. She was shot four times in the jaw, chest and arms.

A man who swam to safety was in tears as he told the court how his friend drowned as Breivik fired on them in the water.

The day had a dramatic end when a man set fire to himself outside the courthouse. He was taken to hospital with serious burns to his head and chest. The incident was not thought to be related to the trial.

Monday 14 May

The court hears more testimony from survivors of the Utoeya massacre.

One woman, fighting back tears, said she swam more than 600m to safety before realising she had been shot. Another witness who was shot in the lung explained how he hid by covering himself with dirt.

A third witness, 20-year-old Frida Holm Skoglund, asked for Breivik to be taken out of court before she testified. She said she fled into woods and removed a bullet from her thigh, before trying to swim to safety along with others - three of whom died. Despite her trauma, Ms Skoglund declared: "We won, he lost!"

Friday 11 May

There is a dramatic interruption to the trial when a brother of one of those killed throws a shoe at Breivik.

The relative screamed at Breivik as he threw the shoe, which missed Breivik, hitting his defence lawyer instead. Members of the public present in the courtroom spontaneously applauded.

The incident happened during the presentation of further reports from post-mortems on the victims. It prompted Breivik to reveal that someone had tried to stop him during the attack on Utoeya island by throwing an object at him which hit him in the face.

The trial later resumed with more testimony from survivors of the attack on Utoeya island.

Eivind Rindal described trying to escape by running through the forest on the island and how Breivik had then shot at him and some other people as they tried to flee in a rowing boat.

Thursday 10 May

The survivors of the attack on Utoeya island continue to give testimony.

Many relatives, and one of the prosecutors, were reduced to tears as the court heard reports from post-mortems carried out on the victims.

Survivor Lars Henrik Rytter Oeberg, who saw Breivik shoot and kill 14 people, described Breivik as having "a stone face" when he tried to shoot him.

Wednesday 9 May

For the first time, the court hears testimony from those who survived the attack on Utoeya island.

Labour youth leader Tonje Brenna, who organised the event targeted by Breivik, described hiding from the killer in rocks near the lake shore as the bodies of victims fell around her.

Local resident Oddvar Hansen told the court how people trying to swim away from the massacre had cried and waved for help.

Bjoern Ihler said he and two boys had swum to safety after Breivik approached them, pretending to be a policeman, but then calmly pulled a gun.

As on previous days, Breivik remained impassive throughout the survivors' accounts, but complained about being unable to question the witnesses directly.

Tuesday 8 May

For a third day, the court is told about the autopsies on the Utoeya massacre victims, including that of a 17-year-old girl who was attending her first Labour youth event.

Another 17-year-old found dead on the island was a cheerleader at school and planned to go on study in the United States.

Monday 7 May

The Breivik trial continues to hear coroners' forensic reports on those who died on Utoeya.

Among the fates detailed where that of a 15-year-old boy who was the youngest to die on Utoeya.

Freddy Lie, the father of a 16-year-old girl who died on the island, said his daughter had talked to him on her mobile phone just before she died.

Friday 4 May

The court begins hearing coroners' reports about the autopsies on the 69 people killed on Utoeya Island.

Lawyers for their families read out descriptions of those who died and showed pictures to the Oslo court.

One young girl, sitting just metres away from Breivik in the courtroom, listened to how her mother died. As on previous days, Breivik seemed unmoved by the evidence.

Coroner Torleiv Ole Rognum said the average age of the victims was 18.

Thursday 3 May

Witnesses told how they helped Breivik get to Utoeya island because they thought he was a police officer.

Breivik was wearing a uniform and showed fake identification papers to a security guard at the quay, who then summoned the ferry.

The ferry captain, Jon Olson, described how he helped Breivik carry a case, which proved to be full of weapons, on to the island.

Mr Olson's partner was one of the first to die at the youth camp on Utoeya and his daughter was also there.

Thursday 26 April

The trial heard harrowing testimony from people wounded in the Oslo bomb attack.

Breivik appeared unmoved as a father, Jan Erik Lund, spoke of seeing his daughter Anne Helene seriously injured in hospital.

About 40,000 people gathered on a central Oslo square to sing a popular old peace song, Children Of The Rainbow, which Breivik had mocked in court.

The singer Lillebjoern Nilsen, accused by Breivik of being a Marxist who sought to brainwash children, led the singing on Youngstorget Square, close to the courthouse.

Wednesday 25 April

Breivik sought to persuade the trial that he was sane, insisting that his actions were motivated by a political ideology, and that he was accountable for them.

He dismissed an initial psychiatric report that found him insane as "a lie".

He said his argument was "entirely logical" and there was "not the slightest possibility" he would be judged insane.

Breivik said the compilers of the report had no experience in dealing with political extremists and, because they had spoken to him so soon after the attacks, they themselves were still in shock.

Tuesday 24 April

Security guard Tor Inge Kristoffersen described the moment the car bomb exploded at Norway's government headquarters.

He watched on CCTV as a car parked and a man wearing what looked like a guard's uniform got out.

Mr Kristoffersen said: "Half of our screens, the images disappeared. There was a deep rumbling, the entire block shook, the ceiling bent like water."

The police officer who co-ordinated the emergency response, Thor Langli, also gave evidence describing how the bomb squad searched for more bombs.

He said a witness saw a small car leave the area, but he felt he could not take any officers away from the site to follow this up.

He suggested if CCTV footage had been relayed live to the police, this might have saved vital minutes and could have given them the opportunity to pursue the car.

Monday 23 April

On the last day of giving evidence, Breivik justified his acts as "a small barbarian act to prevent a larger barbarian act".

Saying the killings had been a "gruesome" experience for him as well, he explained how he had to force himself to do something which felt so "against human nature".

He offered an apology for "innocent" people who died in the Oslo bombing, referring to those who were passing by and who had no political connections. But asked if he extended that apology to those he killed on Utoeya, he said: "No, I do not."

He reiterated his belief that they were "legitimate targets", and added that there were many others in Norway "who deserve to be executed, eg journalists and members of parliament".

He said he understood the loss he had inflicted on victims' families because he had lost his own family and friends after the attack.

Friday 20 April

Breivik described his rampage on Utoeya in chilling detail. Before shooting his first two victims, he said he had "100 voices" in his head telling him not to do it - but pulled the trigger anyway.

Displaying no emotion, Breivik said he proceeded to go to a cafe where several people were hiding, "completely paralysed" with fear.

He said he reloaded his gun after running out of ammunition and killed people as they were begging for their lives. He also shot in the head others who pretended to be dead.

Breivik - who was dressed as a police officer - continued his rampage around the island, luring youths from hiding places by telling them he was there to protect them.

When they came out, he told the court, "I shot towards many of them aiming at their heads."

Thursday 19 April

Breivik said he intended hundreds should die in his attack on the Labour Party summer camp, and that a primary target was a former prime minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland.

He claimed he planned to behead Mrs Brundtland, who he thought would be on the island, and post a video of this on the internet. In fact the ex-PM left Utoeya before Breivik arrived.

He also hoped his car bomb in Oslo would kill the entire government.

Breivik told the court he used computer games to rehearse scenarios ahead of his attacks. He said he had planned three car bombs but opted instead for one bomb attack and one gun attack when he discovered how difficult it would be to make the bombs.

The BBC's Steve Rosenberg, at the trial, said Breivik was behaving differently from his irritable performance on Wednesday and he seemed calm.

He abstained from giving his usual salute as proceedings began, following a request by the defence team.

Wednesday 18 April

The prosecution continued its cross-examination of Breivik by trying to disprove his claim of the existence of a far-right European network.

They also questioned him on his supposed contacts with Serb nationalists in Liberia, and with English nationalists in London.

Breivik was also questioned about his religious beliefs by a lawyer for the victims. He said he wanted to prevent the "de-Christianisation of Europe".

The BBC's Matthew Price, who was in court, said Breivik appeared to be on the back foot - less relaxed than before, and more defensive.

Breivik also told the court that there could be only two "just" outcomes to his trial - acquittal or the death penalty.

Tuesday 17 April

Proceedings were delayed while the court decided to dismiss a lay judge over remarks made on a social networking site suggesting Breivik should be given the death penalty.

Breivik then took the stand and delivered a 13-page statement explaining his political views.

In it, he said that he would do it all again, that his actions were "based on goodness, not evil", and that he had acted to defend Norway against immigration and multiculturalism.

The prosecution then began its cross-examination. They cast doubt on his membership of an organisation called Knights Templar, which they assert does not exist.

His testimony and that of his witnesses was not broadcast.

Monday 16 April

Anders Breivik pleaded not guilty to the charges. He told the court he "acknowledged" the acts committed, but said he did not accept criminal responsibility. He said he acted in self-defence.

Dressed in a dark suit, he smiled and appeared calm as he entered the court and gave a closed-fist salute.

Breivik showed no emotion as harrowing details of how he killed and injured his victims were read out, but later wiped away tears as the court was shown a video he made about multiculturalism prior to the attacks.

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