Slovakia country profile

Map of Slovakia

Right at the heart of Europe and with a history intertwined with that of its neighbours, Slovakia has proudly preserved its own language and distinct cultural traditions.

It was part of Czechoslovakia until the "velvet divorce" in January 1993.

Having uncoupled itself from its western neighbour, Slovakia at first struggled to prove itself as an independent democracy, but by the time of the twentieth anniversary of the "velvet divorce" in January 2013, it had come to be seen as one of Europe's biggest success stories.

Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the eurozone in 2009. Its forces have taken part in the Nato-led operation in Afghanistan, and in peacekeeping duties in Kosovo.

Slovakia has a significant Romany population which suffers disproportionately high levels of poverty and social deprivation.


Slovak Republic

Capital: Bratislava

  • Population 5.5 million

  • Area 49,033 sq km (18,932 sq miles)

  • Major language Slovak

  • Major religion Christianity

  • Life expectancy 74 years (men), 81 years (women)

  • Currency euro

Getty Images


President: Andrej Kiska

Image copyright Getty Images

Philanthropist and former businessman Andrej Kiska was elected president in 2014.

He won a run-off election against the country's social democratic prime minister, Robert Fico, whose defeat was considered highly significant: if he had become head of state, his party would have controlled the presidency as well as the government.

Mr Kiska campaigned on the need to have a healthy balance of power between the president and the cabinet, and called for a strengthening of the independence of the judiciary where the president appoints important personnel.

The presidency is largely ceremonial, but the president has the power to pick the prime minister, appoint Constitutional Court judges and veto laws. A parliamentary majority can override vetoes.

Prime minister: Peter Pellegrini

Image copyright Getty Images

Peter Pellegrini was appointed prime minister in March 2018 in the aftermath of the killings of a journalist and his fiancee.

President Andrej Kiska rejected Mr Pellegrini's first list of cabinet ministers, saying the public would not trust them to properly investigate the murders of investigative journalist Jan Kuciak and his fiancee.

The killings sparked nationwide protests, leading to the country's long-standing prime minister, Robert Fico, stepping down. Mr Kuciak had been investigating alleged government corruption.

Before becoming prime minister, Mr Pellegrini headed various government ministries and was also Speaker of Parliament.

He holds a degree in finance, banking and investment and speaks English, German and Russian.


Image copyright Reuters

TV is the most popular medium. Two Slovak financial groups own many of the top media outlets.

Freedom House says the media are generally free and independent. But the 2018 murder of an investigative journalist highlighted the increasing exposure of reporters to intimidation and abuse, says Reporters Without Borders.

Facebook is the leading social network.


Some key dates in the history of Slovakia:

1918-1992 - Republic of Czechoslovakia includes Czech, Slovak and Ruthenian lands. The "velvet divorce" results in two independent countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

2004 - Slovakia joins Nato and European Union.

2009 - Slovakia adopts the euro.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Bratislava Castle is one of the capital's landmarks and towers over the Danube River

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