Europe

Ukraine profile - Media

Elderly woman watches TV while man reads a newspaper Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Information warfare with Russia has had a profound impact on the media landscape.

Television dominates the media scene, and private commercial channels are the leading outlets.

Major media groups are influential in the market. A cluster of national networks, including Inter TV and 1+1, have the biggest audiences. Funding for the public service network UA:First is meagre and its ratings are low.

Some newspapers publish Ukrainian and Russian-language editions. The press is diverse in terms of political stance.

National media have adopted a united patriotic agenda following Russia's annexation of Crimea and the armed conflict in the east. Ukraine has banned cable relays of leading Russian TVs; in turn, areas under Russian or separatist control have seen pro-Kiev outlets silenced.

The introduction of Ukrainian-language quotas for TV and radio has been seen as a way to counter Russian soft power and promote patriotism.

Violence against journalists and curbs caused by the conflict in the east have raised concerns about media freedom. Reporters Without Borders says separatist-controlled areas are "no-go areas without critical journalists".

Around 64% of Ukrainian households have internet access, according to a 2017 industry study.

The authorities blocked access to popular Russian portals and social networks in May 2017. Virtual private networks are widely used to access Russian sites, and Russian social networks including VKontakte are still popular.

Facebook is the leading social network. OLX, the Ukrainian mirror of Russia's Yandex search engine, is one of the top five most-visited websites.

The press

Television

Radio

News agencies/internet