Chechnya profile - Media
Chechnya has no opposition media and state-run outlets toe the official line.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) includes President Kadyrov on its list of "Predators of Press Freedom". It says he has no hesitation about dictating editorial policies.
"The very few journalists who still dare to defy the official consensus and obligatory pro-government enthusiasm are warned or threatened, and pressure is put on relatives," RSF says.
TV is the most popular medium and Russian stations are widely available. Local TV broadcasts under the umbrella of ChGTRK, which is run by the Chechen authorities.
Local radios are on air alongside relays of Russian networks. Newspaper print runs are small and distribution is patchy.
Mr Kadyrov is prolific on social media, especially on the Russian LiveJournal platform.
He had 3 million followers on his Russian-language Instagram account, which appeared to have been suspended in December 2017 along with his Facebook page. Mr Kadyrov accused the US of pressuring the networks to disable his accounts.
Many Chechens use Russian platforms Odnoklassniki and Vkontakte and some are on Twitter. RSF says the smallest critical comment on social networks "is liable to have dire consequences".
The authorities have blocked websites deemed to carry extremist content.
- Vesti Respubliki - Chechen government newspaper, in Russian
- Stolitsa Plyus - Grozny local government bi-weekly
- ChGTRK Grozny TV - run by Chechen authorities, terrestrial and via satellite
- GTRK Vaynakh TV - regional outlet of Russia's state-run VGTRK
- ChGTRK Radio Groznyy
- GTRK Radio Vaynakh