Pro-Russian media dominate the Crimean media, with most of their pro-Ukrainian counterparts having been pushed out since the 2014 annexation.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) says prominent media and journalists opposed to annexation were "either reduced to silence or found a refuge in Kiev".
Media freedom organisations have accused Moscow of shutting down access to Ukrainian media. Kiev has made efforts to launch broadcasts into Crimea from a neighbouring region.
Major Russian TVs are widely available terrestrially. Top Ukrainian channels can only be seen online or via satellite.
Radio stations tend to focus on entertainment and operate as local outlets of major Russian broadcasters.
The main Russian newspapers are sold at local kiosks and many have offices in Crimea. Very few Ukrainian papers are sold.