Catalan-language, locally-based media draw large audiences. TV3, operated by public Televisio de Catalunya, is the leading television station. Public Catalunya Radio tops the radio ratings.
The radio and TV networks of Spain's national public and private broadcasters are available across Catalonia.
Leading daily La Vanguardia introduced a Catalan-language edition in 2011, published in parallel with its established Spanish-language edition. The move led to a sharp rise in the overall number of newspaper readers.
Internet use is widespread and is said to be higher than the Spanish national average. Catalan has a significant online presence; the language is supported by Twitter, YouTube and other major platforms.
A Catalan top-level internet domain, .cat, became available in 2005. Administrators say it is aimed at the online "Catalan linguistic and cultural community".
The independence question plays out across Catalonia's social media.