Bolivia profile - Media

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Many media outlets are in private hands and ownership is highly concentrated.

The government operates a TV station and community radios.

Officials use legal, political and economic means to pressure independent media, says Freedom House.

It says self-censorship is commonplace, with many journalists fearing that they could lose their jobs over reporting critical of the authorities.

Media deemed to "play party politics" or "insult" the government face being denied funding from state advertising, says Reporters Without Borders. Arbitrary arrests and impunity for violence against journalists are other problems.

Newspaper readership is limited by low literacy. Radio is important, especially in rural areas. There are hundreds of stations.

More than 4.8 million Bolivians were online by 2017, around 44% of the population (

The press