Brazil profile - Media

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Television dominates South America's biggest media market. There are hundreds of TV networks and thousands of radio stations.

Brazilian-made dramas and soaps - known as telenovelas - are shown around the world. Game shows and reality TV attract huge audiences.

Media ownership is highly concentrated. Conglomerates such as Globo, the leading broadcaster, dominate the market and run TV and radio outlets, newspapers and pay TV.

Freedom House says many private media are owned by individuals with political connections, who use the outlets to promote their own interests.

The constitution guarantees a free press and there is vigorous media debate about politics and social issues.

But Reporters Without Borders says Brazil is one of Latin America's most violent countries for journalists with a "climate of impunity fuelled by ubiquitous corruption".

Politicians often use restrictive laws to silence journalists or media outlets, says the Committee to Protect Journalists.

By 2017, 139 million Brazilians were online - around 50% of the population ( Mobile broadband is the main means of internet access.

There is a "digital divide" between regions and between urban and rural areas, says Freedom House.

Brazilians are among the world's top users of social media. Facebook is the leading social platform and WhatsApp is the top communication application.

There are no indications of widespread blocking online, but internet freedom is constrained by attacks on bloggers, defamation laws and restrictions on election-related content, says Freedom House.

The press