Cuba has the most repressive media environment in the Americas, says US-based NGO Freedom House.
Almost all traditional media are state-controlled and journalists risk harassment and detention over coverage that is deemed to be critical of the authorities or the political system.
In 2017, the Committee to Protect Journalists identified a gradual opening up of the media landscape. It cited a lively blogging scene, an increasing number of news websites and "an innovative breed of independent reporters".
The US tries hard to reach Cuban audiences. Washington-backed Radio-TV Marti says it provides balanced and uncensored news.
Internetworldstats.com says there were 4.4 million internet users by 2017, comprising 39% of the population.
Freedom House says online access is tightly controlled and prohibitively expensive. Most users can only access "a closely monitored Cuban intranet", it says. The government blocks access to some independent news websites.
Online content is also available via "the Package"; a USB stick loaded with regularly-updated material which is passed from user to user.