For most Nicaraguans radio and TV are the main sources of news. There are more than 100 radio stations, many of them in the capital, and several TV networks.
"Journalism as a whole is stigmatised," says Reporters Without Borders. The group says journalists face harassment, arbitrary arrest and death threats.
Many of the main TV networks favour particular political factions and members of the ruling elite have financial stakes in media outlets, says Freedom House. It says the Ortega administration "engages in systematic efforts to obstruct and discredit media critics".
There were 1.9 million internet users by 2017, around 60% of the population (Internetworldstats.com).