Privately-owned outlets dominate the media scene, with state media having smaller audiences.
Lima is home to dozens of radio stations and several TV networks.
Radio is an important news source, particularly in rural areas.
The use of criminal defamation charges against journalists is the main threat to media freedom, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
Journalists are susceptible to threats and physical attacks, especially when covering corruption, says Freedom House.
Media ownership is highly concentrated. RSF says Grupo El Comercio controls most national print titles and a major national TV network.
Around 18 million Peruvians were online by 2017, around 56% of the population (Internetworldstats). Facebook is the top social media platform.