Struggling Venezuelans have resorted to trading scrap metal and plastic crates in an attempt to make ends meet.
Amid drastic food shortages and an economic crisis, crowds have forged trade routes along illegal tracks leading into neighbouring Colombia.
President Nicolás Maduro has said he will not allow aid to enter the country as it is a means for US intervention.
Juan Guaidó, the head of Venezuela's National Assembly who has been recognised by the US and some other nations as interim president, has said almost 300,000 Venezuelans will die if aid does not arrive soon.
All pictures copyright