A chronology of key events:
700s AD - Onset of Arab domination and the introduction of Islam.
800s - Ibadiyah Islamic sect begins ruling via a succession of elected and hereditary Ibadite imams.
1507 - Portuguese sack Muscat and capture the Omani coast; they are driven out in 1650.
1800s-1900s - Omani empire expands to include Zanzibar and Mombasa on Africa's east coast and parts of the Indian subcontinent, reflecting Oman's strong maritime heritage.
1737 - Persians invade.
Al Bu Said dynasty
1749 - Persians are driven out. The Al Bu Said dynasty comes to power, and continues to rule to this day.
1913 - Control of the country splits. The interior is ruled by Ibadite imams and the coastal areas by the sultan. Under a British-brokered agreement in 1920 the sultan recognises the autonomy of the interior.
1954 onwards - Clashes resume between imamite forces, seeking an independent state in the interior, and those of the sultan.
1959 - Sultan Said bin Taimur regains control of the interior. His rule is characterised by a feudal and isolationist approach.
1964 - Oil reserves are discovered; extraction begins in 1967.
1965-75 - Rebellion in the southern region of Dhofar in which leftist forces are pitted against government troops. The uprising is finally put down with the help of soldiers from Jordan and Iran.
1970 - The sultan is overthrown by his son in a bloodless coup. Sultan Qaboos bin Said begins a liberalisation and modernisation programme.
1981 - Oman is a founding member of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council.
1997 - Sultan Qaboos decrees that women can stand for election to - and vote for - the Consultative Council. Two women are duly elected.
1999 - Oman and neighbouring United Arab Emirates (UAE) sign a border agreement defining most of their disputed common frontier.
2002 November - Sultan Qaboos extends voting rights to all citizens over the age of 21. Voters were previously chosen from among tribal leaders, intellectuals and businessmen.
2004 March - Sultan appoints Oman's first female minister with portfolio.
2005 January - Nearly 100 suspected Islamists are arrested; 31 Omanis are subsequently convicted of trying to overthrow the government, but are pardoned in June.
2007 June - Cyclone Gonu, the strongest storm to hit the Gulf for decades, kills more than 50 people and disrupts oil production.
Oman's Arabian Oryx sanctuary becomes the first site to be removed from UNESCO's World Heritage list after the rare species dwindled and the government cut the park size by 90%.
2011 February - Protesters demand jobs and political reform. One demonstrator is shot dead by police. Sultan Qaboos reacts by promising jobs and benefits.
2011 October - Elections to the Consultative Council. Following unrest inspired by the Arab Spring, Sultan Qaboos grants the council greater powers.
2012 September - Trials begin of activists accused of posting "abusive and provocative" criticism of the government online, amid reports of a crackdown on protests over unemployment and lack of democracy. Six are given jail terms of 12-18 months and fines of about $2,500 each.
2013 March - Sultan Qaboos pardons around 30 people, including online activists and protesters.
2016 September - The national newspaper Azaman is forced to close after publishing an article about alleged pressure on judges from officials. The editor is sentenced to jail.
2017 June - Qatar starts bypassing sea, land and air transport restrictions imposed by its Gulf neighbours by using ports in Oman to carry cargo.
2020 January - Haitham bin Tariq Al Said succeeds to the throne on the death of his cousin Sultan Qaboos.