Islamic State defectors: Three case studies
A new report has compiled cases of defectors from the so-called Islamic State (IS) group speaking to the media about their experience. You can read the full story here. Below are three case studies from the report.
This Syrian IS recruit initially joined an Islamist brigade of the Free Syrian Army to fight the Assad regime. He told the BBC that he went on to join IS when his whole tribe pledged allegiance to the group - and because he believed in creating an Islamic state.
His first orders, as an Isis fighter, were to attend a course on Sharia, or Islamic law. "Not the principles of Islam, the principles of the Islamic State. So they teach you the Islam they want," he said.
"It appeals to the heart and not to the mind, so that your heart becomes impassioned with their words. This is the first stage. The second stage is military exercises, military training."
But he became disillusioned by the "brutality" of the extremists and escaped to Turkey. He summed up the jihadists' tactics like this: "If you're against me, then you'll be killed. If you're with me, you work with me. You submit to my will and obey me, under my power in all matters."
"Anything that contradicts their beliefs is forbidden. Anyone who follows what they reject is an apostate and must be killed," he said.
Usaid Barho, Syria
Usaid Barho was an ordinary Syrian teenager when civil war came to his hometown of Manjib, near Aleppo. At just 14, he was recruited by IS from a mosque in the town. He joined willingly, he told the New York Times. "I believed in Islam," he said.
"They seduced us to join the caliphate," he said in an interview. "They planted the idea in me that Shias are infidels and we had to kill them.
He said he was told Shia militants would come to rape his mother if he did not fight.
Being given a mission as a suicide bomber was the only way to escape, Usaid said, so he volunteered. Late last year, he approached the gate of a Shia mosque, unzipped his jacket to reveal a vest of explosives, and surrendered himself to the guards.
"I opened up my jacket and said, 'I have a suicide vest, but I don't want to blow myself up.' " The guards removed the vest and Usaid was taken away an interviewed by intelligence officers.
"Even if he was brought to court, we would be on his side, because he saved lives," one of the officers said.
Abu Ibrahim, Westerner
Like thousands of others, Abu Ibrahim is a Westerner - it is not revealed from which country - who converted to Islam and was persuaded to travel to Syria by IS propaganda videos. But the reality did not match the high-production images he had witnessed online.
"A lot of people when they come, they have a lot of enthusiasm about what they've seen online or what they've seen on YouTube," he told CBS. "They see it as something a lot grander than what the reality is. It's not all military parades or it's not all victories."
During his six months with the militants he saw crucifixions and witnessed a couple being stoned to death for adultery. He escaped after realising he was not helping the people of Syria, he said.
"My main reason for leaving was that I felt that I wasn't doing what I had initially come for and that's to help in a humanitarian sense the people of Syria," he told me. "It had become something else. So, therefore, no longer justified me being away from my family."
But getting out was not easy, he said. "The restrictions on leaving made it feel a bit like a prison ... Myself if I was caught I would probably be imprisoned and questioned."