US Election 2016

Donald Trump as president: Who should worry about it?

US President-elect Donald Trump addresses supporters during his election night rally in Manhattan, New York, on 9 November, 2016. Image copyright Reuters
Image caption US President-elect Donald Trump will enter the White House in January 2017

America has chosen Republican nominee Donald Trump as the 45th president of the United States. The result brought delight to many, and for millions of others, dismay.

So who stands to win and lose under a Trump presidency?

Here's what we know from the billionaire mogul's pre-poll speeches.

Also considered are the views of Mike Pence, the Indiana governor and born-again Christian who will be vice-president.


WOMEN

Gender has played a larger role in this US election than ever before, as voters decided whether to elect their first "Madam President".

In the final week of the contest, Democrat Hillary Clinton tried to capitalise on Mr Trump's "woman problem" by branding him a "bully" with a 30-year history of "demeaning, degrading, insulting and assaulting" women.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Hillary Clinton called Donald Trump a "bully" who insults women - but millions of them ultimately voted for him

But the figures show that many female voters disagreed. Exit polls suggest that 42% of women backed Mr Trump.

Breaking this down further, 53% of white women voted for him, while just 4% of black women polled backed Trump-Pence. Among female Hispanic voters - arguably the demographic Mr Trump has done most to offend - 26% still gave him their votes.

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Winners

The BBC's Katty Kay highlighted just a few of the next president's more striking statements about women, writing that he "said women who have abortions should be punished, made crude insinuations about a TV anchor's menstrual cycle, and doesn't change nappies or do bedtimes".

But for some female voters - including some stay-at-home mothers - this implied opposition to gender equality is encouraging rather than problematic. Some see it as a recognition of women's historic nurturing role.


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Analysing why women would vote for Mr Trump, the left-leaning website Vox noted that women who have little opportunity to succeed in the labour market are more likely to support "policies and values that reward a traditional division of labor in the household".

Many were drawn to Mr Trump's promise to restore jobs and prosperity to white working-class communities, and to penalise US companies that manufacture their goods overseas.

Image copyright Reuters
Image caption Mr Trump's daughter Ivanka has insisted her father is not a misogynist

Pregnant women and veterans may also stand to benefit under a Trump administration. Future First Daughter Ivanka has helped him devise a plan offering six weeks of paid maternity leave to mothers whose employers don't provide it.

For female veterans, Mr Trump has promised to invest in the treatment of "invisible wounds" like post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, and to increase the number of doctors who specialise in women's health.

Losers

Women's activists are especially concerned about how Mr Trump will treat American abortion law. At present, the right to an abortion is guaranteed in all 50 states because of a 1973 Supreme Court judgement, Roe V Wade. But if Mr Trump appoints a conservative to the vacant spot in the US supreme court, this could lead to a conservative majority and a reversal of the key legislation.

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Mr Trump has adjusted his position on abortion over the years. In 1999, he said: "I'm very pro-choice. I hate the concept of abortion. I hate it. I hate everything it stands for. I cringe when I listen to people debating the subject. But you still - I just believe in choice."

In March 2016, he clarified: "My position has not changed - like Ronald Reagan, I am pro-life with exceptions."

Image copyright Reuters
Image caption For Hillary Clinton's female support-base, a Trump presidency raises many questions

Eyebrows were raised when he threatened some form of punishment for women who get abortions, if they became illegal - but he later said the penalty should target those who carry them out.

Mr Pence has made his fierce opposition to abortion clear. He said in July: "I'm pro-life and I don't apologise for it," adding: "We'll see Roe V Wade consigned to the ash heap of history where it belongs."

Mr Trump's sexual assault accusers must also be classed among those worst off today. His campaign was dogged by allegations from multiple women who claimed he had kissed or groped them without consent, and many Republicans feared for the president-elect's prospects when a 2005 video emerged of him bragging to TV host Billy Bush, "I just start kissing them. It's like a magnet ... When you're a star they let you do it".

But his candidacy survived the scandal - and his accusers must now wait to see if he stands by his pre-poll claim: "All of these liars will be sued after the election is over".

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Media captionTrump: Hopes and fears of campaigners

MUSLIMS - IN US & ABROAD

In a statement deeply worrying to Muslim Americans, Mr Trump has previously called for surveillance on US mosques, saying he doesn't care if it is "politically incorrect", and suggested Muslims should be tracked by law enforcement as a counter-terror initiative.

It was widely reported that Mr Trump wanted to keep a database on all American Muslims, but the Republican later denied suggesting this, claiming that a reporter had raised it and he misunderstood the question.

Image copyright AP
Image caption Mr Trump was condemned for his words about Khizr Khan, father of fallen US Army Captain Humayun S. M. Khan, and his wife Ghazala

When an NBC journalist asked Mr Trump what the difference is between a registry for Muslims and the Nazis' registry for Jews, Mr Trump replied: "You tell me."

Winners

It's hard to pinpoint any obvious advantages for the Islamic community from this election result.

Some Muslim writers have raised fears for the future, noting that theirs is almost the only minority that Mr Trump has not attempted to win over to his cause.

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Losers

Critics have accused the businessman of playing on Islamophobia and negative stereotypes to win over voters who fear future terror attacks on US soil.

Mr Trump's row with the parents of a fallen US soldier, Captain Humayun Khan, included claims that his mother Ghazala Khan was "not allowed to speak" alongside her husband at the Democratic National Convention due to her faith - which she herself denied.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Mr Trump once called for a "total and complete shutdown" on Muslims entering the US

After the mass shooting in San Bernardino, California, that killed 14 people, Mr Trump issued a press release calling for a "total and complete shutdown" on Muslims entering the US "until our country's representatives can figure out what is going on".

The statement was condemned internationally, sparking a public petition to ban the businessman from entering the UK that was signed by hundreds of thousands.

One significant condemnation came from Mr Pence, who labelled the proposed Muslim ban "offensive and unconstitutional" before proceeding to endorse Ted Cruz - then a Trump rival - in Indiana's primary election.

It appears Mr Trump may have abandoned the notion, however.

In October, Mr Pence was asked by CNN why he no longer speaks out against the call to ban Muslims from entering the US. "Well, because it's not Donald Trump's position now," he replied.


HISPANICS

The fabled "Mexican wall" is one of the president-to-be's most infamous campaign pledges.

While promising to deport 11 million undocumented migrants, Mr Trump said he would stop illegal immigrants crossing from Mexico to the US by force of concrete.

"I would build a great wall, and nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I'll build them very inexpensively," Mr Trump vowed in June 2015.

"I will build a great, great wall on our southern border. And I will have Mexico pay for that wall."

Winners

Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto has described Mr Trump as "a threat", and confirmed he has no intention of funding a 2,000 mile barrier, at a projected cost of between $8bn (£6.4bn) - Mr Trump's figure - and $25bn (£20.2bn) - the Washington Post's estimate.

Image copyright Twitter / Donald Trump
Image caption In November 2015, Donald Trump repeated his call for a wall on Twitter

But some Latino border residents believe they could benefit if it goes ahead, as the construction process would create jobs.

For the 29% of Latino voters who backed Mr Trump, many factors were in play. Writing in the Washington Post, Trump-supporting Latina A.J. Delgado said immigration is not the community's top concern, as "we care most about the economy and jobs".

If Mr Trump can keep his pledge to bring back blue-collar manufacturing jobs, his supporters are sure to feel vindicated.

Losers

The 11 million immigrants who are present in the US illegally, some of whom are Hispanic, may have cause for worry. Mr Trump has said he would triple the US's existing "deportation force," on taking power, potentially increasing the number of deportations to 1.2 million a year.

Mexican tourists, workers, students, and business people all stand to lose out from the wall - and almost a million of them cross the border every day. Critics have pointed out that trade with Mexico has created over six million jobs in the US, boosting the economy.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Almost a million people cross the border between the US and Mexico every day - many of them for work

Inevitably, the millions of individuals who form "the Hispanic community" hold a diverse array of political views rather than a single set of preferences.

For some, for example in Miami's large Cuban-American population, Mr Trump's robust position on Cuba proved attractive. Cuban-Americans who fled the island after the revolution have historically been a reliable voting bloc for Republicans because of the party's hard-line anti-communist stance.

While Mrs Clinton backed a thaw in US-Cuban relations during her campaign, Mr Trump called for the trade embargo to continue. If he holds that line when Team Castro come knocking, business folk who would benefit from freer trade with Cuba will be left wringing their hands.

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