World Malaria Day: Wetin be malaria and how we fit stop am?

Close up of a mosquito biting a person in the arm Image copyright Getty Images
Image example Na mosquitoes wey get infections dey spread malaria

How we fit stop malaria?

Dis disease dey preventable and curable but still dey kill well-well: E dey kill one pikin evri two minutes and more than 200 million new cases na im dem dey report evri year, according to World Health Organisation.

For di past ten years, new and beta ways to take fight malaria dey come out, but since 2015 progress don slow: di WHO latest World Malaria Report (wey dem release for 2018) show say no ogbonge reduction of di number of cases happun from between 2015 and 2017.

As 25 April na World Malaria Day, dis na wetin you suppose sabi about di disease:

  • Na four different types of Plasmodium parasite dey cause malaria: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax.
  • Di parasites dey pass from pesin to pesin through di bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, wey dem call "malaria vectors".
  • You fit prevent di disease and treat am too.
  • For 2017, na estimated 219 million cases of malaria dem report for 87 kontris (WHO figures).
  • Na estimated 435,000 pipo die from malaria for 2017.
  • Na Africa get high share of di world malaria - for 2017, 92% of malaria cases and 93% of malaria deaths happun for di continent.
  • Total moni dem drop to finish malaria patapata reach estimated $3.1bn for 2017.

How malaria dey take show

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Image example Bodi wey hot, cold and headaches na di first signs of malaria

Malaria signs - high fever, headache, and cold - go usually appear 10-15 days afta mosquito wey get infection bite.

E fit dey small and hard to recognise say na malaria, but if dem no treat am within 24 hours, P. falciparum malaria fit lead to serious sickness, wey fit lead to death.

Who dey at risk?

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Image example New pikin dem for areas wey malaria dey affect dey at risk of getting di disease

For 2017, nearly half of di world population bin dey at risk of malaria.

Children wey dey under five years na dem dey at risk pass: For 2017, pipo for dis group record 61% (266,000) of all di pipo malaria kill worldwide.

Oda population groups such as pregnant women and pipo wey get weak immune system dey at higher risk of getting malaria.

Which areas e affect most?

According to WHO informate, most malaria cases and those wey dey die dey happun for sub-Saharan Africa. But parts of South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, and di Americas also dey at risk.

For 2017, five kontris dey responsible for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide: Nigeria (25%), di Democratic Republic of Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), India (4%) and Uganda (4%).

How e dey take transfer

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Image example Mosquitoes wey dey infected by any of di four different species of di Plasmodium parasite dey spread di disease

For most cases, malaria dey transfer through di bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes - na more than 400 different species of Anopheles mosquito dey, of which around 30 dey carri malaria.

Di mosquitoes wey dey spread di disease dey bite usually wen pipo dey sleep for night.

Anopheles mosquitoes dey lay dia eggs for water, wey dey turn to larvae, wey go become adult mosquitoes; di female mosquitoes dey eat blood meal to take care of dia eggs.

How to prevent am

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Image example For 2017, about half of all pipo at risk of malaria for Africa get insecticide-treated net (WHO World Malaria Report)

WHO recommend protection for pipo wey dey at risk of malaria wit methods wey don show say dey work.

Two forms of protection - insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) - dey work wella.

Sleeping under ITNs fit reduce contact between mosquitoes and humans as e dey provide physical barrier and dey kill di insects too.

IRS involve to spray di inside of houses and buildings wit insecticide, once or twice per year.

You fit also prevent Malaria by using ogbonge anti-malarial drugs for those wey dey travel, pregnant women and children.

How to take treat am

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Image example If you treat malaria early e dey get good result

You fit Malaria treat and cure malaria. According to di WHO, to sabi say you get am early and to begin treat am dey reduces di disease, prevent deaths and decrease di chances of malaria transmission.

Di best available treatment, particularly for P. falciparum malaria, na artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). But make you no do self medication and go hospital to test am first.

Insecticide and melecine wey no dey work again

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Image example Dem suppose check blood samples for malaria regularly to monitor wen di merecine no dey work again

WHO don warn say Anopheles mosquitoes dey show sign say insecticides and merecine no dey work on dem again, and dis dey slow down di fight against malaria.

Di concern na say di way dem dey take prevent and control malaria fit stop to dey work.

Di latest informate as malaria dey for di world, show say 68 kontris report say mosquito melecine and insecticide no dey word again between 2010-2017.

WHO say e dey important for dis methods to work, to control and finish malaria patapata - dem say e dey important for regular monitoring for kontris wia malaria na big problem.

Dis na to make sure say any drug wey no dey work again dem spot am as soon as possible and deal wit am sharp sharp.

Another thing we de for inside dis tori