Cumar al-Bashir: Sida ragga awoodda badan ee Sudan awoodda u haysteen

Hogaanka milaterigu wuxu doonayaa in laga baaqsado in ciidamada nabadgelyadu iskaga horyimaadaan caasimadda dhexdheeda. Lahaanshaha sawirka AFP
Image caption Hogaanka milaterigu wuxu doonayaa in laga baaqsado in ciidamada nabadgelyadu iskaga horyimaadaan caasimadda dhexdheeda.

Alex de Waal oo khabiir ku ah arimaha Sudan ayaa qoraalkiisan ku yidhi inkasta oo af-gembigii Khamiistii riday madaxweyne aan dadku ogolayn, in ay hadana kuwii ku dhawaa Cumar al-Bashiir ay weli ka go'antahay in ay awoodda sii haystaan.

Mudo 30 sano ah ayaa markii ugu horaysay aanu Madaxweyne Cumar al-Bashiir ka talinayn Sudan.

Laakiin markii ay shacabka Sudan dhegaysanayeen Jeneraal Cawad Ibn Cawf oo shaacinaya [in talada uu qaban doono] gole milateri oo ku meel gaadh ahi, waxa codkiisa uga dhex sanqadhayey codkii ninka isaga u madaxa ahaa.

Ibn Cawf waa nin xifrad milaterinimo leh oo ay xaggaa Al-Bashiir iskaga mid yihiin. Wuxuu taliye u ahaa sirdoonka milateriga mudadii colaaddu ka socotay ee gumaadku ka dhacay Darfur, arintaas darteedna waxa Maraykanku ugu daray liiska dadka uu la beegsaday cunoqabataynta maaliyadeed.

Shacabka Suudaan oo wali diidan xukunka milatariga

'Kali-taliyeyaashii Afrika' imisaa kasoo hartay?

Lahaanshaha sawirka AFP
Image caption Lama sheegin in rayidku labada sano ee kala guurka ah laga qayb gelinayo

Wuxu ahaa wasiirka gaashaan dhigga, hadana markii Madaxweyne Al-Bashiir dalka ku soo rogay xaaladda degdegga ah 22 Feeberweri Ibn Cawf waxa loo dallacsiiyey inuu noqdo madaxweyne ku xigeen, taas oo ujeedadu ahayd in marka mudo xileedka dastuuriga ah ee madaxweynuhu dhamaato Abriil 2020 uu bedelo.

Arinta keliftay in Al-Bashir talada laga tuuro waxa dhaliyey mudaharaaddo nabadgelyo ah oo shan maalmood oo is xiga ay afar iyo labaatanka saacadood ba shacabku ku gedaannaayeen xarunta taliska guud ee ciidanka ee magaalada Khartoum, iyaga oo dalbanaya in madaxweynuhu is casilo.

Madax awoodda kala jiidanaysa

Laakiin intaa wixii ka dambeeyey waxa gudaha xaruntaa taliska ka bilaabmay doodo dhex marayey saraakiisha milatariga ee ka hooseeya madaxweynaha ee qaabilsan arimaha nabadgelyada.

Maalinnimadii Khamiistii taliska guud ee ciidanka ayaan muddo dheer hadal kama soo bixin intii ay Jeneraal Ibn Cawf iyo taliyeyaasha sar sare ee ciidamada qalabka sida ee Sudan iyo taliyeyaasha sare ee nabad sugidda sida Salaax Cabdallah Goosh, taliyaha nabad sugidda qaranka NISS, ay ku loolamayeen sida hannaanka siyaasadeed ee dalku noqon doono marka Bashiir xilka laga qaado.

Milicsiga taariikhda Al-Bashiir

Lahaanshaha sawirka AFP
Image caption Cumar al-Bashiir
  • Dagaalkii Carabta iyo Israel dhex maray 1973-kii wuxu la dagaal galay ciidanka Masar
  • Af-gembi Islaamiyiintu taageerayeen ayuu talada Sudan ku qabsaday 1989
  • Magan gelyo ayuu siiyey hogaamiyihii Al-Qaacida Usaama Bin Laadin 1990-maadkii
  • Wuxu noqday madaxweynihii u horeeyey ee maxkamadda ICC waaran qabasho ah uu jarto, laakiin wuu beeniyaa eedaha ah inuu dambiyo dagaal ka falay Darfur.
  • Wuxu heshiis nabadeed la galay fallaagadii koonfurta 2005-tii
  • Wuxu meel mariyey go'itaankii Koonfurta ee 2011-kii taas oo keentay in Sudan weydo afar meeloodow saddex dhaqaalihii saliidda.
  • Abriil 2019 waxa af-gembiyey milatariga
  • Wax badan lagama yaqaan noloshiisa gaarka ah. Ubad na muu dhalin

Markii Jeneraal Ibn Cawf kama dambaystii la hadlay qaranka, waxa uu sheegay in Madaxweyne Al-Bashiir xilkii laga qaaday, dastuurkii la laalay, la samaynayo gole milatari oo ku meel gaadh ah, xaalad degdeg ah [oo saddex bilood ah] dalka lagu soo rogay, laba sano oo kala guur ahna dalku gelayo. Laakiin wakiillo mucaaradka ka tirsan kamuu qayb gelin xukuumadda. Run ahaantii xataa in ay wadahadlaan umuu soo jeedin.

In laga baaqsado dhiig daata

Ugu horrayn taliyeyaasha milateriga, nabad sugidda iyo ciidamada gaarka ah ee sida milatariga u tabobaran sida Maxamed Xamdaan "Xameeti" oo ah taliyaha ciidamada birmadka degdegga ah, ayaa dhamaantood doonaya in awoodda wax laga siiyo.

Iska daa dagaal ay dhexdooda isku jeestaane, waxay doonayaan in laga baaqsado in ay mar labaad dhacaan iska hor imaadyadii dhacay todobaadkan horraantiisii, markii hurimo ka tirsan milaterigu ay tacshiiradda huwiyeen maleeshiyaad ka tirsan nabad sugidda oo doonayey in ay xoog ku kala dareeriyaan dadkii mudaharaadayey.

Ta labaad, kooxda af-gembiga maleegtay waxay la hayaan Masar, Sucuudiga iyo Imaaraadka Carabta, taas oo ka dhigan in Qatar iyo Turkigu meesha ka baxeen.

Hogaanka cusubi wuxu kala diray xisbigii talada hayey ee National Congress Party, waxaana soo baxayey warar sheegaya in ruug caddaa badan oo Ikhwaanul Muslimiin ah la xidhxidhay.

Waxay ku mashquulsanyihiin in ay dalalka Galbeedka ka dhaadhiciyaan in Islaamiyiintu qorsheeyeen af-gembi lagaga hor tagay af-gembigan milateriga iyo sidoo kale mudaharaadayaasha dalbanaya dimuqraadiyaddu yihiin Ikhwaanul Muslimiinkii oo shacab iska dhigaya. Ma aha war lagu qanci karo laakiin wuxu tilmaamayaa uun mustabal kakan sababtuna waxa weeyi in Islaamiyiintu ay weli taageero badan ku leeyihiin Sudan.

Ta saddexaad, hogaamiyeyaasha af-gembigu way ilaalin doonaan madaxweynaha talada lagala wareegay, xataa iyaga oo fagaareyaasha kaga eedaynaya inuu isagu leeyahay masuuliyadda dhibaatooyinka dalka ku habsaday.

Hadalkii rasmiga ahaa ee lagu shaaciyey af-gembiga waxa lagu sheegay in lagu hayo "goob amaana" oo aanay u dhiibi doonin Maxkamadda Dambiyada ee Caalamiga ah oo u haysata dambiyo la xidhiidha colaaddii Darfur. Qayb ahaan sababta ay sidaa u yeelayaanna waxa weeyi in qudhooduba mid aan ka yarayn eeddaa Al-Bashir lagaga tuhmayo gumaadkii Darfur iyo meelo kaleba ay qabaan.

Lahaanshaha sawirka AFP
Image caption Madaxweyne Cumar al-Bashir wuxu awoodda ku qabsaday af-gembi militeri 1989

Sababta kalena waxa weeyi in ay ogyihiin in waxa ugu weyn ee uu isku hallaynayaa tahay xirfaddii uu daacadnimada kaga kasbaday saraakiisha ciidanka, taas oo ay isleeyihiin waad ka baran kartaan. Isbahaysiga gudida nabadgelyada ee haatan talada haysaa sii jiri maayo hadii midkood dareemo in quwad shisheeye loo gacan gelinayo ama maxkamad.

Ta afraad waxa weeyi in aanay weli go'aan ka gaadhin sida ay u maaraynayaan mashkiladda dadka mudaharaadaya ee weli ka buuxa waddooyinka.

Jeneraal Ibn Cawf iyo kuwa ay gacan saarka leeyihiin garasho la'aan kama aha in aanay tallaabada ay qaadeen raali gelinayn mucaaradka, laakiin jare ayaa u taagan oo waxay eegayaan bal in ay gacantii birta ahayd ee maamulka sii wadaan iyo in ay u baydhaan dhabe kale oo ah iskaashi, ama in ay labadaba isku wadaan.

Sudan waxay tallaabo qudha u jirsatay wixii horseedi lahaa dhiig ku daata dariiqyada caasimadda, waa se tallaaba qudha uun. Hadii af-gembiga 11 Abriil uu noqdo tallaabo loo qaado dhanka dimuqraadiyadda, waxay noqonaysaa wax ay kuwa af-gembiga maleegay doonayeen ee noqon mayso wax af-gembiga uun ka dhashay.

Alex de Waal, waa agaasimaha fulinta hay'adda World Peace Foundation ee kulliyadda Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy ee Jaamacadda Tufts

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