Todobaadkii dunida baddelay

President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon meet a Chinese girl in West Lake Park, China. Lahaanshaha sawirka Corbis Historical/Getty Images
Image caption Madaxweyne Richard Nixon iyo Marwada koobaad Pat Nixon oo gabar shiineys ah kula kulmay west lake Park ee dalka shiinaha

Marki ay billaabatay hadal haynta, kulanka dhexmaraya madaxweyne Trump iyo hoggaamiyaha Kuuriyada waqooyi Kim Jong-un waxay dad badan soo xasuusisay booqashadii uu madaxweynihii hore ee Mareykanka Nixon uu 1972-ki uu ku tagay Shiinaha.

Kulammadan arrima badan ayay isaga mid yihiin. Shiinaha xilligaas wuxuu gebi ahaanba ka go'doonsanaa caalamka intiisa kale iyada oo looga soo horjeestay kacaanka dhaqanka ku saleysan ee dalkaa ka dhashay, Mareykanka wax xiriir oo toos ah kama dhaxeyn Shiinaha mudda ka badan 20 sano.

Si la mid ah Kim Jong-un ayaa shacabka Kuuriyada Waqooyi u sheegaya in xiisadda dalkiisu uu Mareykanka la leeyahay in si nabad gelyo ah lagu dhammeeyo, xukumadda Shiinaha ee xilligaasina waxay dadkeeda ka dhaadhicisay iney lagama maarmaan tahay in Mareykanka lagu soo dhaweeyo wadnaha kacaanka dunida seddexaad (Shiinaha).

  1. Kulanka Kim iyo Trump oo ka dhacaya jasiiradda Sentosa
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  3. Weriyeyaal lagu xiray Singapore ka hor kullanka Trump iyo Kim

Yuwen Wu oo 1972-ki dhalinyara ahaa ayaa BBC-da uga warramaya sida uu Shiinaha isugu diyaariyey booqashada uu madaxweyne Nixon uu ugu magac daray "toddobaad dunida beddelay"

15-ka July 1971-ki todddobadi fiidnimo (19:00), Madaxweynaha Mareykanka Richard Nixon wuxuu abbaaray Istuudiyaha telefishiinka NBC ee Californiya ku yaallo wuxuuna iclaamiyey inuu Madaxweyne Nixon uu noqday madaxweynihi ugu horreeyey ee sheegay inuu doonayo inuu booqdo Jamhuuriyadda Shacbiga ee Shiinaha (CPR) isaga oo casuumaad ka helay Ra'isal wasaare Zhou Enlai si uu Shiinaha u soo booqdo, si loo caadiyeyeeyo xiriirka ka dhaxeeyo Mareykanka iyo Shiinaha.

Xilligaasi xilligiisa kale oo ay saacaddu tahay 10:00 16-ka July magaalada Beijing waxaa iclaam noocaasi ka baahiyey warbaahinta qaranka ee Shiinaha, iyada oo caddeeysay inuu madaxweyne Nixon uu noqday madaxweynihi ugu horreeyey ee sheegay inuu doonayo inuu booqdo Jamhuuriyadda Shacbiga ee Shiinaha (CPR).

Baahin si weyn looga taxaddiray oo ay labada dalba kaga dhawaaqeen ''diyaar garowga cajiibka ah ee loo sameeynayey booqashada madaxweyne Nixon uu ku tagayo Beijing waxay lama filaan ku noqotay caalamka intiisa kale.

Siyaasadda Ma'o uu ku xisaabtamaya

Go'aanka in Mareykanka lagu casuumo inuu shiinaha booqdo ayaa waxaa keentay xiriirka Shiinaha iyo Midowga Soofiyeeti oo sii xumaanayey, waxayna Shiinaha u aragtay iney halis badan kala kulmeyso bahwadaagta midowga soofiyeti ee waqooyiga iyo cadowga ay ku leedahay Badda Baasafika. Mareykanka ayaa xiisaddaasi Shiinaha iyo Midowga Soofiyeti ka dhex taagan u aragtay fursad ay uga faa'ideysan karto ayna ka soo baxeyso siyaasad muhiim ah.

Dhacdadaasi ayaa waxaa ka dhashay arrima muhiim ah oo lagu dejin karo xiisadda laguna abuuri karo xiriir dibloomaasiyadeed oo caadi ah sanadki 1979-ki.

Marka hore, Mao Zedong wuxuu la hadlay wariye Ameerikaan ah oo la yidhahdo Edgar Snow sanadki 1970-ki, wuxuuna kala hadlay inuu doonayo in la wanaajiyo xiriirka Washingon u dalkiisu la leeyahay, Shiinaha ayaa wuxuu markiba casuumay kooxda tenniska miiska ee Mareykanka iney Shiinaha soo booqdaan.

Dhowr toddobaad kaddib, Henry Kissinger oo ahaa la taliyaha amaanka ee madaxweyne Nixon ayaa booqasha qarsoodi ah ku tagay Beijing, xilli uu shiinaha dib u dhigay casuumaadda booqashada madaxweyne Nixon.

Qalabkan aad haysato kuma ciyaari kartid maqalkan iyo muuqaalkan
Waxaan markaan ictiraafnay muhiimadda ay leedahay kulanka dhex marayo Nixon iyo Mao

Marka arrinta shiinaha xilligaa saa u dhacday , waxaa la diyaariyey ujeeddada booqashada, qayba badan oo ka mid ah hay'adaha dowladda ayaa billaabay iney ka shaqeeyaan sidi loo hirgelin lahaa booqashadaasi, tallaabbooyinka la qaaday xilligaa oo ay ka mid ahaayeen in la diyaariyo ii dhahyo booqashada ku saabsan, in aaladaha amniga la casriyeeyo iyo in bulshada gebi ahaanteedba booqashada lagu wargeliyo.

Xilligaas ninkani wuxuu ahaa 15 jir, wuxuuna dhiganayey dugsi sare oo ku yaalla Beijing.Wax badan kama xasuusto booqashada sida oo kale saaxibbadey aan kala sheekeystayna waxay ii sheegeen iney

wax badan ka xusuusneen, laakiin dhammaantaan hal sheey ayaan xusuusannaa, booqashada guud ee wafdiga Mareykanka Shiinaha uu ku yimid iney dowladda si weyn u hadal haysa oo ay aad u weyneyneysay.

Sanad kaddib ayaan bartay arrima aad u xiisa badan oo ku saabsan tusaalooyin waaweyn oo la xidhiidhay kulankaasi iyo sida uu u dhacay.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Bettmann/Getty Images
Image caption Carruur shiineys ah oo ku sugneyd dugsiga Peking xilliga uu Nixon booqanayey Shiinaha

Wax caay ah 'wajiyadooda kama muuqan'

Yang Zhengquan, waa madaxi hore ee warbaahinta qaranka, wuxuu xusuustaa nidaamka loo raacayey tabinta wararka ku saabsan booqashada wuxuuna ku saleeysnaa "iney waxba iska beddelin aragtida Shiinaha uu Mareykanka ka aaminsanaa" balse booqashada un laga hadlo.

Taa macnaheedu waxaa weye, "weli Mareykanka waan ka soo horjeednaa, balse madaxweyne Nixon waa martida annada, sidaa darteed hortiisa kama muujineyno inaan dhahno ''Nixon ha dhaco" iyo "Mareykanka imbaryaalidda ah ha dhaco" illeen marti buu noo yahaye.

Ugu dambeynti, "imbaryaalidda Mareykanka" waxaa loo beddelay "Mareykanka" oo keli ah xilliga uu madaxweyne Nixon booqanayey, Shiinahana dacaayadaha raadiyaha iyo telefishiinnada ka socda ee liddiga ku ah Mareykanka sidooda ayay u socdaan balse sidi hore uma adkeen oo waa la khafiifiyey.

Shiinaha waxaa kale uu fahmay booqashada sida looga arko dhinaca Mareykanka, iyo sida uu Nixon uu tabinnta talefishiinka ee tooska ah uu ugu wargeliyey shacabka Mareykanka guulaha laga gaadhay kulanki Beijing. Farsama yaqaanno ka socda Mareykanka ayaa waxay isku dayeen iney ka hirgeliyaan xaruun dayax gacmeed balse dhanka Shiinaha oggolaasho meysan ka helin.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Wally McNamee/Corbis/Getty Images
Image caption Dhalinyaro u tababaran jimicsiga oo booqashada Madaxweyne Nixon ku soo bandhigay xirfadahooda

Si loo jabiyo xurgufta siyaasadeed ee gaamuurtay, iyada oo uu fasaxay Ra'isalwasaare Zhou, Shiinaha ayaa wuxuu iibsaday qalabka dayax gacmeedka Mareykanka, waxayna dib uga kireeyeen koox Mareykanka ka socotay si ay warkooda habeenki ay Shiinaha uga soo tabiyaan.

Amni, amni iyo amni dheeraad ah

Arrinta ammaanka ayaa ahayd tan ugu muhiimsaneyd booqashada. Martida waxay u baahneyd iney xaqiijiso amni ahaan iney booqashada si caadi ah u dhaceyso iyada oo ay jirin wax lama filaan ah oo laga cabsanayo, sida oo kale waxay u baahnaayeen iney dadka Mareykanka ay uga ilaaliyaan waddankan ballaadhan ee ay xaaladdiisu tahay mid daahsoon.

Xilliga booqashada, waxaa caasimadda beijing laga sameeyey howl gal amni oo ballaadhan , iyada oo ay dad badani ay noo haystaan 'cadowgooda koobaad' dad badanna ay ku jiraan xabsi guri ama lagu ilaaliyo.

Sida oo kale waxaa la sheegay in xilligaa la kordhiyey saacadaha dugsiyada waxbarashada iyo shaqada ee magaalada Beijing si loo xaqiijiyo inay dad badan ka soo bixin siddeedda fiidnimo ka hor.

Markaan dugsigeeyga ku soo noqday, macallimiinteyda ayaa waxay shaqaalaha dugsiga ay amar ku siiyeen iney aad ula socdaan ama ay daba galaan fasallaadooda si ay waddooyinka wax rabshada ah uga sameeynin. Waxaa kale oo aan xusuusataa in fasal kale laga qabtay arday toori sitay.

Ardayda qaar ayaa waxaa lagu wergeliyey sida ay warfidiyeennada ajnabiga haddii ay weydiiyaan su'aala adag uga jawaabi lahaayeen sida, "aaway Marshal Lin Biao?"

Hoggaamiyihi hore ee xisbiga bulshada (CP), waxaa beddelay Mao waxaana la sheegay inuu ka tagay shiinaha uuna ku dhintay shil diyaaradeed oo ka dhacay Mongolia. Waxaana ardayda loo sheegay iney arrintani tahay "sir culus ayna la wadaagin ajaanibta."

Su'aalaha kale ee ardayda lagu wargeliyey iney ka jawaabin ayaa waxaa ka mid ahaa: "ma heshaa biya iyo cunto kuugu filan?" iyo "ma jeceshahay Mareykanka?"

Ardaydana waxaa loo sheegay iney ku jawaabaan iney su'aashaba fahmin ama iney meeshaba ka cararaan.

Booqashada dalxiisayaal been ah ee Darbiga weyn ee Shiinaha

Si loo abuuro jawi saaxibtinimo oo caadi ah, waxaa billaawday iney halku ku dhigyadi iyo hadalladi dacaayadda la joojiyo oo lagu beddelo kuwa cusub si xiriirka labada dhinac uu sidi hore uga soo reeyo.

Gadiid alaaba wada ayaad dukaannada hortooda ku arkeysaa iyaga oo sida alaaba kala nooc si ka duwan sidii hore.

Waxaa sida oo kale isdhex gal uu ka dhex buurmay Xisbiga Nixon iyo dadka caadiga ee dalka Shiinaha iyada oo si weyn looga dareemayey Beijing.

Wariyaha Mareykanka Max Frankel oo ka tirsanaa wargeyska New York Times ayaa qayb ka ahaa suxufiyiinta sida weyn wax u qora oo ku guuleystay abaalmarinta Pulitzer sanaddi 1973-ka wuxuuna ku muteystay sida uu u soo tabiyey Booqashadi Nixon ee February 1972-ki.

Wuxuuna goob joog u ahaa booqashada uu madaxweyne Nixon uu 24-ka February uu ku tagay darbiga weyn ee shiinaha isaga oo booqashada siyaasadeysneyd isaga oo halkaa kula kulmay dalxiisayaal iyaga oo halkaasi si weyn ugu soo dhaweeyey gaar ahaanna gabadh si wanaagsan u labbisan ay waji furan oo ay farxad ku jirto salaan gaar ah u soo jeedisay madaxweynaha.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Corbis/Getty Images
Image caption Nixon oo darbiga shiinaha tilmaamay :''astaan muujineyso shiinahi hore iyo shiinaha mustaqbalka sida uu noqonayo''.

Waxayna dalxiisayaashaasi ahaayen 'darxiisayaal' la soo xulay oo loo diyaariyey si ay door siyaasadeed uga qaataan booqashada Nixon.

2008-dda, nin wax ka qoro bogga ay leedahay shabakadda Phonix ayaa sheegay inuu ka shaqeynayey warshad yar marki la weydiiyey inuu soo xulo 10 qof oo siyaasad ahaan la aamini karo oo howsha ka qayb qaato. Waxaa la weydiiyey iney si qurux badan u soo labbistaan oo ay dharka shaqada ku imaanin halka munaasabadda lagu qabanayo. Waxayna dalxiisayaasha ku sugan darbiga weyn ee shiinaha ka dhaadhicinayeen iney ka fogaadaan meelaha ay dadka Ameerikaanka joogaan si loo sharfo, haddii ay su'aal weydiiyaan ay u shegaan iney fahmin.

Wadahadallada dhacay

Wadahadallada waxay dhaceen fiidki booqashada darbiga weyn ee shiinaha kaddib kumannaan ka mid ah shacabka deggan Beijing iyo ciidamada dalka ayaa habeenki oo dhan nadiifinayey waddooyinka magaalada ee ay soo marayaan wafdiga Mareykanka. Arrintaasi ayaa waxay noqotay mid si weyn ay ula dhaceen martidi booqashada u timid madaxweyne Nixon-na uu si gaar ah ula dhacay, gaar ahaanna darbiga weyn ee shiinaha, Nixon wuxuu ku abuuray dareen gaar ah isaga oo aad u jecleystay wuxuuna ku tilmaamay darbigu inuu yahay astaan muujineysa "shiinihi hore waxa uu yahay iyo shiinaha mustaqbalka waxa uu noqonaya"

Wuxuuna wariyeyaasha iyo marti sharafta Shiinaha uu u sheegay "waxaan soo booqannay darbiga weyn, marka ma dooneyno wax darbi ah oo hadda kaddib bulshooyinka u dhaxeeya."

Xiriirka ka dhaxeeya Mareykanka iyo Shiinaha ayaa 1972-ki soo maray marxalada kala duwan marna saxmayey marna wiiqmayey, balse waxaa la odhan karaa booqashada taariikhiga ahayd ee Nixon ayaa sababtay inuu wanaagsanaado xiriirka labada dhinac waana marki ugu horreeyey uu xiriirkaasi soo noolaado.

Haddaba indhaha caalamka oo dhan waxay hayaan kulanka dhex maraya Trump iyo Kim, waxaana la rajeeynayaa inuu noqdo billowga soo afjaridda go'doonka siyaasedeed ee 60 sano taagneyd ay ku beddesho nabadgalyo iyo xasilooni jasiirad u ekaha dhulka Kuuriya.

Mowduucyada la xiriira