Wax ka ogow dilaaga daahsoon ee caalamka

The Dutch medical researcher Everard, or Gilles Everaerts in Dutch Lahaanshaha sawirka Getty Images

Sigaarka ayaa dila kala bar dadka isticmaala, sida ay sheegtay hay'adda caafimaadka aduunka ee (WHO). Sannad walba waxaa sigaarka u dhinta lix milyan oo qof halka ku dhawaad 900,000 oo ah dadka aan sigaarka cabbin ay u dhintaan qiiqa kaga yimaadda dadka meelaha u dhaw ku cabba.

Iyadoo ay jirto arrinta ayaa haddana qarniyo badan cabbidda sigaarka waxaa loo arkaa mid caafimaad ah, waxaana beeridda tubaakada loogu yeeraa "dhirtii barakeysnayd " qarnigii 16-aad.

Isagoo ka hadlaya waxyaabaha la rumaysan yahay ayaa cilmibaarihii dhanka caafimaadka ee u dhashay dalka Holand Giles Everard wuxuu rumaysnaa in maadada ku jirta tubaankada ee loo yaqaano Nicotiana ay horseedayso in ay yaraato baahida loo qabo dhakhaatiirta.

"Cabbidda badan ee sigaarka ayaa ah sunta looga hortagi karo cuduro badan oo ay suuragal tahay in ay qofka ku dhacaan," waxa uu sidaasi ku qoray buug uu qoray 1587 oo uu uga hadlayay Sigaarka.

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Qofkii ugu horeeyay ee Yurub ee tubaakada u isticmaalay dawo ahaan wuxuu ahaa Christopher Columbus, sida ku xusan warbixin ay qortay Prof Anne Charlton, oo lagu daabacay Jornaalka caafimaadka ee Royal Society.

Sannadkii 1492, wuxuu ogaaday in dadkii degganaa Jasiiradda ay tubooyiin kudhuuqo tubaakada. Jasiiraddaas waa meesha hadda ay ku yaallaan Cuba, Haiti iyo Bahamas. mararka qaar, caleenta waala gubi jiray si nadaafadda loo dhowro loogana hortago cudurada.

Dadkii ku noolaa meesha hadda ah dalka Venezuela, tubaakada waxay xilligaas u isticmaali jireen sida dawada lagu cadeydo, kaas oo ah dhaqan hadda ka jiro dalka Hindiya.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Wellcome Collection

Waxaa sidoo kale jira tusaalooyiin kala duwan.

Cilmibaarihii u dhashay dalka Burtaqiiska Pedro Alvares Cabral, oo tagay dalka Barazil sannadkii 1500, ayaa sheegay in Tubaankada loo yaqaanay betum, loo isticmaali jiray dawaynta cudurada, sida Laab-jeexa iyo marka ay qofka meel bararto.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Wellcome Collection

Dhakhaatiirtii Yurub iyo kuwa dawooyiinka iibiya ayaa sidoo kale si dhaw u daneynayay suurtagalnimada in dawo ahaan loo isticmaalo tubaakada.

Qarnigii xigay, sida laga soo xigtay Wellcome Collection, oo ahaa madxaf dhanka xaafimaka sigaarka ayaa lagama maarmaan u noqday in ay isticmaalaan dhakhaatiirta guud, kuwa qalliinka iyo ardayda barata caafimaadka.

Khubarada darsi jirka bina'aadamka ayaa lagu buurin jiray in si xor ah ay u cabbaan sigaarka si aysan u urin maydka ayna isaga ilaaliyaan cudurada.

Markii uu cudurka daacuun uu ka dilaacay London 1665, caruurta ayaa waxaa lagu amray in ay sigaarka ku dhex cabbaan fasalada.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Wellcome Collection

Cabbidda sigaarka ayaa xilligaas la rumaysnaa in uu dadka ka difaaco waxyaabaha urta ah ee aan muuqan taasi oo ay aaminsanaayeen in cudurku uu sido.

Balse khubarada arrintani iskuma raacsana, oo waxaa jiray qaar su'aal galiyay in tubaankadu ay dawo u tahay cudurada.

Khabiirkii u dhashay dalka UK John Cotta, oo ahaa ninkii qoray buugaagtii 1612 ayaa sheegay in sigaarku yahay midka keena "cuduro badan".

Lahaanshaha sawirka Wellcome Collection

Iyadoo uu jiray walbahaarkaas ayaa haddana Sigaarka waxa uu ahaa mid dalabkiisa uu aad u sareyo waxaana la aaminsanaa in caafimaadka uu wax ka tarayo.

In sigaarka qofka looga afuufo dhagaha ayaa qarnigii 18-aad ahaa mid ay dhaqaatiirtu ku talin jireen.

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Ka dib markii maadada nicotine laga saaray 1828, khubarada caafimaadka caalamka waxay ka shakiyeen in sigaarku yahay dawo.

Balse in Tubaakada loo isticmaalo dawo ahaan ayaa sii socotay oo waxaa loo isticmaali jiray daawaynta cuduro badan.

Iyada oo walaaca ku saabsan cabbidda Sigaarka uu billaabmay in uu sare u kaco sannadkii 1920s iyo 1930, ayaa haddana sigaarka lagu dhajiyo calaamadda Geela. Waxa ay shirkadaha isku dayeen in ay macaamiisha u xaqiijiyaan iyaga oo ku andacoonaya in dhakhaatiirta ay ku taliyeen cibbidda sigaarka.

Waxaa sidoo kale cabbidda sigaarka lagula talinyaya fanaaniinta "si uu codka ugu furo marka ay heesayaan".

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30-kii sano ee ugu dambeeyay waxaa caddaatay waxyeelada uu Sigaarka u gaysto dadka cabba iyo kuwa aan cabbin.

Waxay arrintan horseeday in ay dalal badan mamnuucaan in sigaarka lagu cabbo goobaha ay bulshada ku kulmaan, waxaana sidoo kale soo baxday wacyigalino iyo olola dadka loooga digayo cabbidda sigaarka.

Qaar ka mid ah dalalka ayaa qasab ka dhigay in Baakadaha Sigaarka lagu dhajiyo sawirka qof qaba kansarka sambabka iyo cudurada kale ee Feeraha ee uu cabbida Sigaarka sababo.

Dalka UK waxaa la adegsaday Boombala lagu magacaabo 'Smokey Sue' kaas oo loo isticmaalay in haweenka uurka leh looga digo khatarta cabbidda sigaarka ay ku yeelan karto ilmaha ay uurka ku sidaan.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Science Museum London

Dhawaan waxaa la soo saaray Sigaarka casriga ah ee loo yaqaano ,e-cigarettes, wuxuuna qaabkan cusub noqonayaa mid sii kordhaya isaga oo badalay sigaarkii kale.

Sigaarka e-cigarettes ayaa ah mid leh batari la dabeeyo, waxa uuna kuu suuragalinayaa in aad jiido maadada nicotine oo uumi ah halkii uu ka dhuuqi lahaa qiiqa tubaakada.

Balse sigaarka noocan ah qudhiisa ma halis yaro sida ay sheegeen khubarada.

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Hay'adda caafimaadka aduunka ee WHO ayaa sheegtay in Sigaarka uu ka mid yahay "khatarta caafimad ee ugu wayn ee ebed soo foodsaarta caalamka ".

Hay'adda ayaa ugu baaqday dalalka in ay meelmariyaan sharciyo looga hortagayo isticmaalka sigaarka iyagoo xaddidaya shirkadaha xayiisiiya sigaarka islamarkana kordhinaya Canshuurta sigaarka.

Hay'adda caafimaadka aduunka ee WHO ayaa sheegtay in isticmaalka Sigaarka uu hoos u dhacay boqolkiiba 20% guud ahaan caalamka 2016, marka la barbardhigo sannadkii 2000 oo ay tirada hos u dhacday boqolkiiba 27%.

Guud ahaan caalamka waxaa sigaarka cabba 1.1 bilyan oo qof oo 80% boqolkiiba, ka mid ah ay ku nool yihiin wadammada dhaqaalahooda dhexdhaxaadka yahay iyo kuwa uu dhaqaalahoodu hooseeyo.

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