Ciidamada dahabka ee talada Suudaan gacanta ku haya

Ciidamada jaanjaawid ee Sudan Lahaanshaha sawirka AFP

Ciidamada RSF ee dowladda Suudaan oo loo yaqaanno jaanjaawid ayaa lagu eedeeyaa xadgudubyada baahsan ee ka dhacay dalka Suudaan iney ka dambeeyeen, iyada oo ay ugu dambeysay dhacdadi 3-da June oo ay ku dhinteen dad ka badan 120 qof oo meydadka qaarkood wabiga Nile lagu tuuray.

Ciidamada RSF ayaa ah awoodda ugu sarreeysay ee maamusha dalka Suudaan. Ciidamada waxay u dhisan yihiin sida dowlad gaar ah: waxay leeyihiin ciidama beeleedyo, shirkado ganacsi iyo ciidamada aad u hubeysan uu waddanka Suudaan uu gacanta ugu jiro.

Ciidamadan waxaa taliye u ah Jeneral Hamdan "Hemeti" Dagalo, isaga iyo dagaalamayaashiisa ayaa wakhti dheer soo qaatay, miliishiyadan carbeed uu Hemeti hoggaamiyo ayaa loo yaqaannaa "Jaanjaawid".

Ciidamada RSF oo daacad u ah madaxweynihi hore Omar Xasan al-Bashir waxaa la aasaasay 2013-kii. Waxayna xilligaasi tiradooda ahayd 5,000.

Supporters hold portraits of Hemeti  before a rally in the village of Abraq, about 60km north-west of Khartoum, Sudan
AFP
Camel trader to power broker

Mohamed Hamdan "Hemeti" Dagolo

  • Grew upin the desert of Darfur and dropped out of primary school

  • Became camel traderthen a militia leader and gold dealer

  • Nicknamed “Hemeti”(Little Mohamed) because of baby-faced looks

  • “Himayti" (My Protector) was ex-President Bashir's name for him

  • Supported coupagainst Mr Bashir

  • Saudi Arabia and UAEback him and he is regarded as Sudan's most powerful general

Various sources

Taariikhda miliishiyadan waxay soo billaabatay 2003-dii, marki ay xukumadda Mr Bashir ay abaabushay carabta xoola dhaqatada ah si ay ula dagaallamaan ciidamada madowga ee kacdoonka ka waday gobolka Daarfuur.

'Kulanki Jaanjaawiid'

Ciidamada ugu badan kooxda Jaanjaawiid ayaa waxay ka soo jeedaan beelaha Muhaamid iyo Muhaariya ee geela dhaqada oo ka soo jeeda beesha Rizeigat oo ku nool waqooyiga gobolka daarfuur iyo xadka Chad ee ku teedsan dhul saxara u badan.

Inta u dhaxeysay 2003-2005 oo uu socday dagaalka iyo xasuuqi Daarfuur hoggaamiyaha ugu magac dheeraa Jaanjaawiid wuxuu ahaa Musa Hilal, oo ah hoggaamiyaha Mahaamid.

Lahaanshaha sawirka AFP
Image caption Hay'adaha xuquuqda aadanaha u doodda Musa Hilal waxay ku eedeeyaan inuu ka dambeeyey xasuuqa Daarfuur ka dhacay

Kooxda Jaanjaawid marki ay ku guuleysteen dhiig daadinta, Mr Bashir wuxuu u sameeyey qaab dhismeed uu ugu yeeray Kooxda Sirdoonka Xadka.

Hal guuto oo ciidamadaasi ka mid ahna wuxuu ka howl geliyey gobolka daarfuur, waxaana ciidamadaasi ka mid ahaa Mohamed dagalo oo loo yaqaanno "Hemeti".

Ninkan oo waxbarashada caadiga ah aan heer sare ka gaarin ayaa muddo kooban ganacsata ahaa, wuxuuna Hemeti uu ka soo jeedaa Mahaariya oo ka tirsan beesha Rizeigat. Dadka qaar waxay sheegaan awoowgii inuu ahaa hoggaamiya caan ah oo degganaa dalka Chad.

Xilliga ugu adkaa uu Hemeti uu soo maray wuxuu ahaa 2007-dii marki ay ciidamadiisa xukumadda Khartoum ku guul darreysatay iney mushaar siiso.

Hemeti iyo ciidankiisaba waxay ka mucaaradeen dowladda, iyaga oo ku dhawaaqay "ilaa iyo qiyaamaha" inay la dagaallamayaan xukumadda Khartoum, waxayna ka baxeen heshiisyadi ay la galeen kooxaha ka dagaallama daarfuur.

Filim xilligaasi laga sameeyey kooxdan ayaa lagu arkayaa kooxda Jaanjaawid oo ciidama cusub oo tabarrucayaal ah oo beelaha kala dadka madowga ka soo jeeda oo ay horay cadow u ahaayeen qoranaya si ay uga barbar dagaallamaan miiliishiyada carabta u badan ee Jaanjaawiid.

Taliyaha Kooxda Hemeti wuxuu ka soo jeedaa beesha Mahariya, inkasta oo uu ciidamada ka qortay dhammaan beelaha kala duwan.

Waxaa jirtay iney garab ka mid ah ciidama ka tirsan dowladda oo uu hoggaaminayo Mohamedein Ismail "Orgajor" oo ka soo jeeda beesha Zaghawa uu ka soo goostay dowladda ayna noqdeen xoog kale oo ku soo biiray kooxaha ka dagaallama Daarfuur.

Mideynta Xoogagga

Hemeti wuxuu ku soo laabtay Khartoum isaga oo looga yeeray heshiis aad u soo jiitay: sida in ciidamadiisa wixi mushaar oo ka maqnaa oo dhan la siiyo, in isaga iyo saraakiishiisa la dallacsiiyo iyada oo loo dallacsiiyey sarreeya guuto, iyo lacago fara badan oo gacanta laga saaray.

Heshiiskaasi kaddibna waxaa ciidamadiisa la hoos geeyey laanta sirdoonka qaranka ee NISS, oo hoggaamineysay dagaalki Chad uu la galay dalka Suudaan.

Qaar ka mid ah ciidamada Hemeti oo sheeganaya magaca mucaaradka Chad, waxay dagaal ku qaadeen magaala madaxda Chad ee N'Djamena 2008-dii.

2013-kiina wuxuu Hemeti aasaasay xoogagga looga magacdaray RSF oo marki dambe Jaanjaawi looga yeeri jiray.

Abbaanduulaha guud ee ciidamada Suudaan ciidamadaaasi la sameeyey iyo awoodda dheeraadka ee la siiyey laanta sirdoonka Suudaan Mr Bashir laftiisa waxay ku abuurtay welwel aad u weyn.

Ciidamada RSF waxay ka dagaallameen Koonfurta Kordofaan iyaga oo si anshax xumo ah ula dhaqamay, halka ay Daarfuur si wanaagsan ula dhaqmeen.

Dhibaatada Dahabka

2012-kii Hemeti iyo Hilaal waxaa ka dhex billowday xifaaltan siyaasadeed kaddib marki keyd dahab oo aad u badan laga helay buurta Jebel Amir oo Waqooyiga Daarfuur ku taallo.

Lahaanshaha sawirka AFP
Image caption Suudaan ayaa waxay ka mid tahay waddamada Afrika ee dahabka ugu badan soo saaro

Xillligaasi oo ku beegantay xilli uu dalka burbur dhaqaale uu la kulmay, Koonfurta Suudaanna ay madax bannaani ka qaadaneysa Suudaan inteeda kale, taasoo sababtay iney 75% shidaalka dalka ay Koonfurta Suudaan ay la go'do taasoo wiiqday dhaqaalaha dalka.

Miliishiyada Hilal ayaa gacanta ku dhigay dhulki dahabka laga helay, waxayna halkaasi ku dileen 800 oo qof oo beesha Beni Hussein ka tirsan, kaddibna waxay kooxda Hilaal billaabeen iney dahabka soo saaraan isla-markaana ay iibiyaan iyaga oo lacag aad u badan ka sameeyey.

Dahabka qaar waxay ka iibinayeen xukumadda Suudaan iyaga oo lacagta dalka Suudaan kaga iibinayey maadaamaa ay heysan fursad ay suuqyada caalamka dahabka ugu iib geeyaan lacag adagna ay ku helaan.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Reuters
Image caption Hemeti caasimadda deegaannada ka baxsan oo dhan aad ayaa looga taageraa

2017-kii dahabka uu dalka Suudaan dibadda u iibgeeyey wuxuu gaaray 40% halka Hemeti uu isku dayay inuu kheyraadkaasi gacanta ku qabto.

Inkasta oo uu gacanta ku dhagay qayba ka mid ah dahabkaasi wuxuuna aasaasay shirkad lagu magacaabo al-Junaid. Khilaafka Hilaal iyo Bashiir marka uu sii adkaadayna wuxuu xukumadda Bashir uu ka diiday inuu ku wareejiyo shirkadda Macdinta ee Amiir, Ciidamada Hemeti uu hoggaaminaya ee RSF waxay marar badan isku dayeen iney weerarra ku qaadaan goobaha macdinta gaar ahaanna dahabka laga qodo iyaga oo ugu dambeynti dib u qabsaday.

Awoodda Gobolka

Hemeti wuxuu muddo gaaban uu ku noqday ganacsadaha dahabka ugu weyn Suudaan, wuxuu gacanta uu ku dhigay xadka u dhaxeeya Chad iyo Liibiya oo ah xad amaankiisa aad u adag yahay. Hilaalna wuxuu galay xabsi.

Lahaanshaha sawirka Getty Images
Image caption Ciidamada RSF waxay sida oo kale ka qayb galeen dagaallada Sokeeye ee yemen

Dahabka ugu badan uu dalka Suudaan uu soo saaro intiisa badan waxaa loo iib geeyaa Dubai. Balse shaqsiyaadka Imaaraadka carabta ka soo jeeda ee Hemeti xirirka ganacsi la sameeyo xriirkooda intaasi wey dhaafsiisneyd.

2015-kii xukumadda Suudaan waxay oggolaatay iney kun askari oo ka mid noqdo xulafada sacuudiga iyo Imaaradka ay hoggaaminayaan ee ka howl galaya Yemen, waxaana ciidankaasi hoggaamiye looga dhigay General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan oo hadda ah guddoomiyaha golaha ku meel gaarka ah ee mlitariga Suudaan.

Bilooyin kaddib imaaraadka wuxuu heshiis la galay Hemeti si uu ciidama dheeraad ah oo ka tirsan dagaallamayaasha RSF uu Koonfurta Yemen ilaa iyo magaalada dakadda ee Xudeydiyah ka dagaallama.

Hemeti wuxuu sida oo kale uu diray ciidamo ilaaliya xadka Sacuudi carabiya iyo Yemen ay wadaagaan.

Xilligaasi oo ahayd xiiligi ay ciidamada RSF ay ugu awood badnaayeen, ciidamada carabta ka soo jeeda ee ciidamadaasi ka tirsan waxay wadaagaan ama ay qaataan magaca dagollo.

Waxayna leeyihiin 70,000 oo asakri iyo 10,000 oo gawaarida gaashaaman, waxayna ciidamadaasi gacanta ku hayaan ammaanka waddooyinka magaalooyinka waaweyn ee Khartoum iyo magaalooyin kale.

Hemeti gives a military salute in the village of Qarri, about 90km north of Khartoum, on 15 June  2019
AFP
Since April, Hemeti has moved fast, politically and commercially"
Alex de Waal
Sudan expert

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