Jean Perez: Puerto Rico bowler tests positive at Pan American Games
Puerto Rico were stripped of a gold medal at the Pan American Games after bowler Jean Perez tested positive for a banned substance.
Perez was found with chlorthalidone, a diuretic, in his system.
As a result, the United States were elevated to gold, Colombia silver and Mexico bronze in the men's doubles.
Perez posted a Puerto Rico Bowling Federation statement on Facebook claiming the substance was needed to "guarantee his health".
The Puerto Rico Bowling Federation said Perez had a right to appeal, and that he had been authorised to take the substance by two medical experts.
A statement from the federation added: "In the case of our athlete, there is no doubt about the medical justification for the therapeutic use of the medicine and there is no doubt that the drug charged does not provide any advantage."
Figures released by the World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) in 2017 showed three 'adverse analytical findings' from 160 tests conducted on bowling athletes.
Under Wada's definition, an adverse analytical finding is the presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete's sample - but this is not automatically classed as a drugs violation, as such findings also, for instance, cover therapeutic use exemptions (TUEs).