Adam Gemili ran his first sub-10 seconds 100m but then fell to the ground with a suspected torn hamstring.
The 21-year-old ran 9.97 secs in Birmingham to become the first Briton to go under both 10 seconds in the 100m and 20 seconds in the 200m.
He clutched his leg after crossing the line in second place behind American Marvin Bracy (9.93) and was taken from the track in a wheelchair.
Dina Asher-Smith, 19, ran the second quickest 200m by a British woman.
On a successful day for Britain's sprinters, Asher-Smith finished third in a personal best 22.30 secs.
The British 100m record holder was just a hundredth of a second adrift of winner Jeneba Tarmoh and Allyson Felix in second, who both clocked 22.29 secs.
"I'm really happy," Asher-Smith told BBC Sport. "I was looking to get somewhere around my personal best so to run 22.30 is just out of this world."
The pair's performances sated athletics fans in the absence of double Olympic champion Mo Farah, who withdrew from men's 1500m on the morning of the competition.
Farah said he was "emotionally and physically drained" after a "stressful week" that saw a BBC investigation allege his coach Alberto Salazar had been involved in doping.
European 200m champion Gemili's form in the week leading up to the race had promised a special performance in Birmingham.
He recorded a wind-assisted 9.97secs last Sunday and, on a cloudless day at the Alexander Stadium, set a personal best 10.00secs in the heats, which he went on to better in the final.
"I felt my hamstring go as I dipped, but I'm in good spirits," Gemili said.
"British sprinting is really stepping up and I'm glad to be a part of it."
|BBC athletics summariser Darren Campbell on Adam Gemili|
|"It's so hard when you're running for a time. To go in knowing you're close to being able to run under 10 seconds; you want to do it in Birmingham, it's a nice warm day, the wind is perfect, all of a sudden you have extra pressure on yourself.|
|"It's good that he's been able to put that to bed. What he's achieved in such a short a time is unbelievable.|
|"It's a shame it ended today with despair and disappointment but hopefully his hamstring is not too bad. It does seem to be in the belly of the hamstring.|
|"Potentially, it's a tear. But the only way he'll know that for sure is by having a scan. If it means he has to write the season off so be it, the important thing is Rio next season."|
Richard Kilty also set a personal best time of 10.05secs in finishing fifth, while fellow Briton Chijindu Ujah was sixth in 10.11secs.
Five Britons had previously dipped under the 10-second mark: Linford Christie (9.87), James Dasaolu (9.91) Chijindu Ujah (9.96), Dwain Chambers (9.97) and Jason Gardener (9.98).
He recorded the second quickest 200m by a Briton when he won gold in Zurich last year in a time of 19.98 secs.
Elsewhere at the Diamond League event, Olympic champion Greg Rutherford won the men's long jump by equalling his second longest jump ever, a season's best 8.35m leap.
Laura Muir set a personal best 2:00.42 to finish second in the women's 800m. It was a race comfortably won by Kenya's Eunice Jepkoech Sum, unbeaten over the distance this season, in 1:59.85.
British record holder Tiffany Porter (12.65) came third in the women's 100m hurdles, as did compatriot Laura Weightman (4:06.42) in the women's 1500m.
Finally, having initially had what was an African-record throw deemed a foul, Julius Yego's 91.39m effort in the javelin was later declared legal - winning the Kenyan the competition and putting him ninth on the all-time list.