England without Ben Stokes are like a "car without a wheel", according to former captain Michael Vaughan.
The hosts took only three wickets on the second day of the third Test at Edgbaston as Pakistan reached 257-3, trailing by 40.
All-rounder Stokes is missing the final two matches of the series with a calf injury sustained in the second Test.
"They can't move in the same direction or at the same speed," Vaughan told BBC Test Match Special.
"England miss Ben Stokes hugely - he's an in-your-face player.
"On a day like this it's been crying out for someone to do something different - and he does that."
Azhar Ali made 139 and Sami Aslam - playing his third Test - 82 for Pakistan, sharing a stand of 181 to give the tourists the upper hand, with the series level at 1-1.
James Anderson removed Mohammad Hafeez in the first over of the day and Chris Woakes had Azhar caught at first slip with the final ball of the last over.
However, James Vince's run-out of Aslam was England's only other success in the 90 overs bowled in conditions which offered the seamers less assistance than on the first day.
Former England batsman Geoffrey Boycott said captain Alastair Cook "doesn't have any real feel for the game - he just bowls them by numbers".
He told TMS: "Which England bowlers looked as if they might get wickets?
"Stuart Broad and Anderson are usually the best two bowlers, but sometimes you get on surfaces where other bowlers bowl better.
"Broad tried hard but he didn't make it go out - he didn't do anything except make the ball go in.
"Woakes looked a better wicket-taking bowler than Broad when he bowled from the commentary box end."
Anderson, who had Azhar dropped on 38 by Joe Root at second slip, was twice warned by the umpires for running on to the pitch during his follow-through.
The seamer, whose frustrations were visible, said: "The situation of trying to help your team get wickets... the distraction of running on to the wicket doesn't help.
"I had a bad half an hour; I got frustrated. It was unacceptable. I apologised to both umpires for my behaviour. If they want to take any more action it's up to them."
Pakistan 'ground England down'
Azhar scored his first century outside Asia, hitting 15 fours and a six in his 293-ball innings, and celebrated by performing press-ups next to the pitch, as the Pakistan team did after winning the first Test at Lord's.
On falling to the last ball of the day, he said: "It was very frustrating.
"Being only two down as a team would have been good psychologically. Unfortunately it didn't happen. But it's always nice to score runs away from home."
Boycott added: "It's a credit to the discipline and patience Pakistan have shown.
"That's not normally the Pakistan way, but they have shown strength of character to change their game and grind England down."