Suspended Asian Football Confederation president Mohamed Bin Hammam was denied entry to the Fifa congress after being unable to file his appeal.
Fifa took action against the 62-year-old amid allegations of corruption, including claims he "bought" the 2022 World Cup for Qatar, which he denies.
"I am sad and disappointed over what has happened," he said in a statement.
"I will never accept how my name and my reputation have been damaged. I will fight for my rights."
Bin Hammam was set to stand against current chief Sepp Blatter for the position of Fifa president before pulling out of the race hours before he was provisionally banned from all football-related activities on bribery charges.
Both Bin Hammam and Concacaf president Jack Warner were suspended by Fifa's ethics committee, chaired by Namibian judge Petrus Damaseb, pending the outcome of a full inquiry into allegations they paid officials $40,000 [£24,391] each in bribes.
"Good days bring you happiness, bad days bring you experience," added Bin Hammam, who has been temporarily replaced as Asian Football Confederation president by his deputy, Zhang Jilong.
A statement issued by Bin Hammam's spokesman stated: "Despite his explicit written request, he was not provided with the motivated decision of his suspension in due course and he was not able to file his appeal and was denied his last opportunity to get access to the Fifa congress.
"There is absolutely no justification for a suspension."
The statement also criticised the conduct of Fifa secretary general Jerome Valcke, who was present alongside Damaseb when the provisional suspensions were announced.
"The suspension is not necessary to conduct the investigation but constituted a grave violation of his reputation and created substantial damage without any necessity," it added.
"The behaviour of the secretary general at the media conference on Sunday evening was absolutely unacceptable and against all principles of justice.
"Sitting next to the chairman of the independent ethics committee, he abused the event to voice his personal opinions and to comment on the results.
"Because of this very unfair treatment, Mohamed Bin Hammam reserves all his rights, against this unprofessional and one-sided attitude, with the judicial bodies of Fifa and beyond."