Coventry were relegated to League One after losing at home to Doncaster, although a win would not have been enough thanks to results elsewhere.
Already-relegated Doncaster took the lead through James Hayter's penalty, earned after Richard Keogh fouled the striker and was shown a red card.
Simon Gillett fired into the bottom right corner from just outside the box to double the visitors' advantage.
Coventry's fans spent much of the match protesting against the club's owners.
Their chances of taking their relegation battle into the final week of the season were reliant on a victory over Rovers and Bristol City losing to Barnsley,
And the Sky Blues will be facing Rovers next season in the third tier of English football after neither result went their way.
After news of Bristol City's early opener at Ashton Gate filtered around the Ricoh Arena, Doncaster almost piled more misery on Coventry with an early strike but Joe Murphy denied Gillett from 20 yards.
Coventry soon settled and Keogh headed wide from Oliver Norwood's corner before Gary McSheffrey saw a shot blocked by Adam Lockwood.
The Sky Blues almost got their reward on the half-hour mark but Clive Platt's close-range header was nodded off the line by George Friend.
Rovers were forced to replace Chris Brown with Hayter shortly before the break and Coventry ended the half strongly, with Clive Platt testing Gary Woods.
City started the second half positively and after Chris Hussey shot wide from 20 yards, Cody McDonald hit a post and McSheffrey fired over from six yards.
But Keogh was then shown a straight red card after hauling down Hayter, who picked himself up to convert from the spot.
Gillett then got his name on the scoresheet three minutes from time, finding the bottom corner from 20 yards.