Derby survived a Charlton fightback to claim three points at Pride Park.
Jamie Ward opened the scoring for the Rams with a strike from outside the box before Craig Bryson doubled their advantage shortly after the restart.
The points appeared to be secure when Ward scored a penalty after he had been brought down by Danny Green.
But Green struck from long distance after 70 minutes and then set up Yann Kermorgant as the Addicks scored twice in three minutes.
However, they could not find an equaliser and Charlton have made their worst start to a campaign since their relegation from the Premier League six years ago and are now in the bottom three.
In contrast, the victory for the Rams, their second of the season in the Championship, lifts them 11 places up to ninth in the table.
But they remain uncertain at the back and have still to keep a clean sheet this season after seven league and cup fixtures.
Derby had got off to a great start when a poor defensive header dropped to Ward, who struck past Ben Hamer from 25 yards.
Conor Sammon and Ward, on two occasions, almost doubled the home team's lead before Bryson turned in Will Hughes's low cross after Charlton failed to clear.
After scoring from the spot, Ward almost completed a hat-trick but was denied by Hamer.
The home crowd were stunned by the quick-fire double but Derby held out to claim a deserved win.