Swindon could pay out a combined fee in excess of £500,000 for signing James Collins and Troy Archibald-Henville.
A tribunal ruled they must pay Shrewsbury £140,000 plus add-ons for Collins, as well as 20% of any profit made by the sale of the striker.
Exeter will receive an initial £200,000 for defender Archibald-Henville with extras, including £40,000 if the team are promoted to the Championship.
The Grecians will also get 20% of any profit from a future transfer.
Swindon have been forced to pay compensation because both players were under the age of 24 and the clubs involved failed to agree transfer fees.
Former Aston Villa trainee Collins, 21, signed for the Robins on a two-year contract in July.
He has since made eight appearances, with all three of his goals coming in their Capital One Cup victory over Stoke. Swindon must pay £20,000 per 15 appearances, up to a maximum of £80,000.
Shrewsbury manager Graham Turner told BBC Radio Shropshire: "James is a good player - we know that, Swindon know that.
"I think in the past both sides would go out of the room and the committee would decide a price. For whatever reason, they now think about it and let the clubs know at a later date."
Archibald-Henville, 23, ended his three-year association with Exeter in June to make the switch to the County Ground.
He has been restricted to two games because of a knee injury.