The Gunners made a £10m bid for Cabaye on Sunday and Pardew pulled the France international, 27, out of Monday's Premier League opener.
"You prepare for three days with a player of that talent and that was taken away from us," said Pardew.
"It had a huge bearing on the result as well."
Cabaye travelled to Manchester with the Newcastle squad before Pardew sent him back to the North East following Arsenal's offer being made public ahead of the City game.
The Magpies went on to endure a miserable time at the Etihad without one of their most influential players as they were comprehensively beaten, while centre-back Steven Taylor was also sent off.
"Why [Arsenal] couldn't do us the respect and the honour of waiting until Tuesday evening is beyond me," said Pardew.
"It is pretty obvious that I am upset about it."
Arsenal put in their bid for Cabaye following criticism over a lack of signings in the wake of a 3-1 home defeat by Aston Villa on Saturday.
Pardew is unhappy that the summer transfer window remains open after the start of the Premier League campaign and wants that changed.
"There is a question about the window being closed before we kick off the Premier League season," he said.
"I know the Premier League asked the European leagues to do it and they wouldn't fall in line.
"But after the summer we have had, the situations we have had, with Wayne Rooney as well, it is definitely something they need to put under the microscope again."