Chris McPhee scored the only goal as Salisbury ended Lincoln City's perfect Conference Premier record at Sincil Bank this season.
The hosts looked the more threatening early on, but were frustrated by a Salisbury side searching for their first away victory.
McPhee headed the winner from a Ben Wright corner just before the break.
Clovis Kamdjo went close after half-time, but he steered his header from Wright's cross against the woodwork.
Imps goalkeeper Paul Farman was then called into action, tipping Dan Fitchett's effort over the crossbar.
VIEWS FROM THE DRESSING ROOM
Lincoln City manager Gary Simpson told BBC Radio Lincolnshire:
"They came to sit in, let us have the ball and defend in numbers and they got their break from a corner.
"We've huffed and we've puffed, we've tried this, tried that, tried everything. But that little bit of quality in the last third, we couldn't quite get it to work their keeper more.
"We were too slow in our build-up at times, we needed to pass it more quickly and go forward. But too often we went back. We kept possession but to really hurt them we needed to get on the front foot, but credit to them, they came here and made it difficult."
Salisbury City manager Mikey Harris told BBC Wiltshire:
"We knew what to expect coming to Lincoln, they've had a fantastic run, 100% record (at home). A fantastic day at the office!
"It was a fantastic team performance, the workrate, the ethic to get in their faces, to close them down.
"Picking up three points on the road, particularly at somewhere like Lincoln is a great achievement.
"We had chances to kill the game off and that's something we've got to improve on as a team."