England suffered their first defeat in 16 games as they were beaten by European champions Spain.
Manchester United midfielder Michael Carrick had a night to forget, as did a few more of Roy Hodgson's side.
So how did England's players fare overall? Chief football writer Phil McNulty runs the rule over the players on duty.
Joe Hart (goalkeeper) 7
England's captain for the night was a reassuring presence, commanding his area and he could do nothing about either goal.
Kyle Walker (right-back) 5
No major errors in defence but not really able to influence affairs further forward with his pace. Still very much Nathaniel Clyne's understudy. Not international class.
Ryan Bertrand (left-back) 7
Good night for Bertrand and was one of England's few attacking threats in the first half with a couple of surging runs and good crosses. Did his case no harm.
Phil Jones (centre-back) 6
Battled gamely against Diego Costa, who was eventually substituted, but still carries an air of panic and surely not a Euro 2016 starter.
Man of the match: Chris Smalling (centre-back) 7
Improving all the time and looked the part again here. Slowly but surely stepping up his claims to start in central defence in France next summer.
Michael Carrick (central midfielder) 4
Utterly anonymous and posed further questions about his ability to influence games at this level. So important for Manchester United but his England career has been a missed opportunity and was carried off on a stretcher late on.
Fabian Delph (central midfielder) 6
Busy night for a player who has been sidelined with hamstring injuries since his move to Manchester City. Industrious but largely ineffective.
Adam Lallana (attacking midfielder) 5
Undistinguished night for the Liverpool midfield man. Gave the ball away too often and occasionally lightweight in the physical exchanges.
Ross Barkley (attacking midfielder) 6
Not as impressive as against Estonia and Lithuania as this was a real step up in class - but showed some first-half flashes that hint at his genuine quality.
Raheem Sterling (attacking midfielder) 5
Busy but his control often let him down at key moments. Still a work in progress at this level and England will hope for more ahead of next summer
Harry Kane (striker) 6
Fed off scraps all night but never stopped working and almost got on target with a rasping shot just wide. Kane is a real contender to start up front for England at the Euros.
Dele Alli (for Delph, 63 minutes) 5
Came on as Spain exerted their dominance so little opportunity to impress.
Eric Dier (for Lallana, 63 minutes) 5
Same applies to Dier as it does to his Spurs team-mate Alli - almost an easing-in debut and time for judgement will be in the future.
Wayne Rooney (for Barkley, 73 minutes) 5
Thrown on with the game going away from England. Peripheral .
Gary Cahill (for Smalling, 84 minutes) No rating
Not on the pitch long enough to warrant a rating.
Jonjo Shelvey (for Carrick, 90 minutes) No rating
Neither was Shelvey.