Sporting Lisbon want compensation of up to 197m euros (£175m) for three players who terminated their contracts and have since joined other clubs.
Among the players is Rui Patricio, who joined Premier League newcomers Wolves.
Sporting want 57m euros (£50m) for the Portugal goalkeeper, 100m euros (£89m) for Atletico Madrid winger Gelson Martins, and 30-40m euros (£27m-£36m) for Olympiakos winger Daniel Podence.
Nine players quit the club after an attack at the training ground in May.
Sporting say they have reported Martins, Patricio and Podence - and their new clubs - to world governing body Fifa.
They say the Court of Arbitration for Sport (Cas) will decide whether to side with the players or Sporting.
Midfielder William Carvalho was another to terminate his contract, but Real Betis paid Sporting 20m euros (£18m) in compensation after his move there.
And Bruno Fernandes - another midfielder - rejoined Sporting, signing a new five-year deal with a 100m euro (£89m) release clause.
A group of 50 fans reportedly attacked Sporting players and staff in May after the club missed out on a Champions League place on the final day of the season.
In April, former Sporting president Bruno de Carvalho claimed to have suspended 19 first-team players after a Europa League defeat by Atletico Madrid, although he deleted the post on social media and most of the players featured in their next game.
De Carvalho has since quit the club after fans voted for him to resign, with Sousa Cintra put in temporary charge until elections are held in September.
Sinisa Mihajlovic, De Carvalho's managerial appointment, was sacked after nine days and replaced by Jose Peseiro, who has returned for his second spell.