Matty Fryatt is suing Nottingham Forest, claiming his former club were negligent in treating the injury which ended his career.
The striker retired at the age of 31 in February 2018 because of a long-standing Achilles injury, having not played since March 2015.
Fryatt, 34, claims he was pressured to play, causing the damage that ended his career prematurely.
Forest said in a statement that they were "defending proceedings".
The Championship club added: "The claim relates to medical treatment received by Mr Fryatt prior to the current ownership of the club commencing. As is normal the claim is being handled by the club's insurers and the club will be making no further comment on the proceedings."
Former Walsall, Leicester and Hull striker Fryatt joined Forest in June 2014, but started only 17 games in three seasons.
He retired after developing chronic left Achilles tendonitis.
"It feels like my career has been taken away from me, stolen," Fryatt told the PA news agency. "There was no care.
"I feel sick with it all, frustrated, sadness. I've felt alone, abandoned and let down. It hurts. How was I left in this situation?
"Forest's lack of understanding and their ignorance to it is so hard to take. They don't want to take responsibility. You were an object. I was put under pressure to play and forcing me to play caused the damage which ended my career."
Fryatt, who had surgery three times in May 2015, August 2015 and February 2016, said his mental health had also been affected and he had been "a shadow of his former self" and "a nightmare to live with".
Fryatt's solicitor Barrington Atkins, from the London firm Stewarts, said: "It will ultimately be for the court to decide whether the treatment of Mr Fryatt was negligent.
"We hope his case will contribute to the increasing focus on player safety, player welfare, and the duty of care owed by football clubs to their players."