Rebecca Downie could end a seven-year wait for a major honour after qualifying with the second-best score for the European uneven bars final.
The 21-year-old's last individual medal was 2006 Commonwealth bronze, but she scored 14.733 to make Saturday's final.
But British rising star Gabby Jupp was carried off on a stretcher with a knee injury after an awkward beam landing.
Team-mates Ruby Harrold and Charlie Fellows both qualified for Friday's all-around final in Moscow.
In addition to her Melbourne Commonwealth bronze on the beam, Downie also won silver as part of the English women's team at just 14 and went on to compete at the Beijing Olympics two years later.
However, injuries have hampered her subsequent development.
In early 2011 a ruptured Achilles tendon disrupted her build-up for London 2012 and she had to settle for a place amongst the reserves for the squad, but now she is back showing the kind of form which once made her one of the country's most exciting young prospects.
"It is my highest score of the year and it wasn't what I was expecting so I'm really pleased," said Downie, who finished behind Russia's Aliya Mustafina with 15.025.
"I had quite a bit of pressure because I'm doing just the one piece and I was very anxious and nervous ahead of it but clearly it paid off.
Downie added: "I know there's definitely room for improvement ahead of the final so that gives me a lot of confidence."
Jupp's injury to her left knee is a significant blow to the British team as the teenager had been in sparkling form in her first year as a senior.
In March she claimed all-around gold at the British Championships, before securing two medals at the Doha World Cup weeks later.
Despite her fall the teenager's score of 13.566 would have put her in the European beam final, but her injury rules her out.
Sixteen-year-old Harrold totalled 54.799 to reach the women's all-around last 24.
She also qualified for the weekend's beam and uneven bars individual finals and was in the same rotation as Jupp.
"I did see what happened to Gabby and I hope she'll be alright but I came here to do my job and I had to concentrate on that," stated the London Olympic reserve.
"I performed a personal best on the beam with 13.433 so I'm really happy with that."
Team-mate Fellows, 16, is making her senior international debut at a major event this week and progressed to the final of the all-around competition with a competent display across the four disciplines with a total of 52.566.
"It's not my best and I have competed better but I was steady on most of the apparatus apart from on the floor - where I think I can improve quite a bit," she said.
In addition to Harrold and Fellows returning for the women's all-around last round, Daniel Purvis and Max Whitlock - who secured the highest qualifying score on Wednesday - will contest the men's final.