Swimming (50m and 100m Freestyle, relays)
He won the 50m freestyle in Beijing with an Olympic record of 21.30 to become the first ever Brazilian gold medallist in the pool.
Cielo Filho escaped a ban for a failed drugs test as he successfully argued that the substance, furosemide, had come from a contaminated nutritional supplement.
His original sanction of a warning was upheld after the case was taken to arbitration by Fina, who had challenged the decision.
Did you know?
Unusually for a Brazilian perhaps, Cesar (named after his Italian grandfather Cesare) claims not to be football mad, preferring volleyball, noting that his country have one of the best teams in the world.