The Russian parliament will consider a proposal to bar athletes from competing in more than two Olympic Games.
A bill has been submitted aimed at stopping injury-prone athletes from denying places to younger competitors.
It follows an incident at last year's Sochi Winter Olympics when figure skater Evgeni Plushenko withdrew with a back injury at the last minute.
If it was introduced before Rio 2016, two-time Olympic pole vault champion Yelena Isinbayeva would miss out.
Isinbayeva, 32, said: "This proposal bears no relation to real life. Any athlete has the right to compete for as long as they can qualify for the Games."
Had it been introduced before Sochi, Alexander Zubkov, who carried the Russian flag at the opening ceremony at his fourth Olympics, would have been unable to compete. He went on to win two gold medals in bobsled.