Sochi 2014 will have the "most stringent anti-doping programme" seen at a Winter Olympics, according to the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
The IOC discussed plans with Sochi 2014 officials and the World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) on Sunday.
"There will be 2,453 tests carried out in total," said IOC communications director Mark Adams.
The announcement comes three days after Russian biathlete Irina Starykh pulled out of the Games after a positive test.
The Sochi 2014 opening ceremony takes place on 7 February, with the first events taking place the day before.
There were 2,149 tests carried out at the Vancouver Games four years ago, 14% fewer than the total to be done in Sochi.
And there will be 1,184 post-competition tests after this year's Games, with a focus on "higher risk" sports and team sports including ice hockey.
Samples will also be kept for 10 years should technology further improve and allow for future testing.