Two Russian skiers have received lifetime Olympic bans for doping violations at Sochi 2014.
Alexander Legkov and Evgeniy Belov are the first athletes punished by the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) investigation into claims of Russian doping made in the 2016 McLaren report.
Legkov, 34, was stripped of his two Winter Olympic medals from Sochi.
The IOC said more decisions would follow in the coming weeks as it continues its investigations.
Lawyers acting on behalf of the pair described the ruling as a "scandal" and said they would appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (Cas).
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Belov, 27, and Legkov were among six cross-country skiers who had provisional doping bans upheld after a failed appeal to Cas in May.
Legkov won men's 50km freestyle gold and silver in the 4x10 km relay in Sochi. Belov's best performance was 18th in the men's skiathlon.
On Saturday, the IOC said it would make a ruling on Russia's participation at the 2018 Winter Olympics in December.
Pyeongchang 2018 begins on 9 February.