Over 90 years of public life
He is husband to one of the most famous women in the world, but the path of a male consort has not been an easy one. His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh has walked in the shadow of Queen Elizabeth II for much of his adult life.
Seeking acceptance in his personal and public life, this European prince with a fragmented childhood has found enduring stability in his new family, and carved leading roles of his own in British society.
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On 10 June 1921 on the island of Corfu, a Greek prince and Battenberg princess gave birth to a son – Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark.
Following a Greek anti-royalist coup the family was rescued by Britain’s Royal Navy, with the 18-month-old prince ferried to safety in an orange box. A spell in Paris saw his mother institutionalised, and he went to live with relatives in the House of Mountbatten in England. After this unsettled period, the prince embraced the routine of Gordonstoun School in Scotland. He excelled under the mentorship of headmaster Kurt Hahn, becoming Head of School and captaining the cricket and hockey teams.Daily Telegraph: Prince Philip's turbulent early life
My mother was ill, my sisters were married, my father was in the south of France - I just had to get on with it
A talented naval officer
Leaving school at 18, Prince Philip joined the Royal Navy as a cadet in 1939 just before World War II broke out.
He graduated from the Britannia Royal Navy College, Dartmouth as top cadet. Over the next six years he saw active service in the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean, and was in Tokyo Bay in 1945 when the Japanese surrendered. He was one of the few royals to serve in such a combative role, even fighting against his German brothers-in-law. He was mentioned in despatches for his service on battleship HMS Valiant in 1941. By 21 he had been appointed first lieutenant of the destroyer, HMS Wallace.Radio 4: Prince Philip on his WW2 combat experiencesBBC News: The relationship between royals and navy
Marriage to a young princess
Meanwhile, Prince Philip was courting a young princess whom he first met at a wedding in 1934. Their love blossomed during WW2.
In 1947 the prince asked King George VI for his daughter’s hand in marriage. Being foreign-born and without wealth, he was seen as a controversial choice to join the Royal Family. But the King agreed and the couple wed at Westminster Abbey with 2,000 guests and 200 million more listening on radio. Philip’s sisters were forbidden to attend as they had married Germans with Nazi links. He renounced his Greek title and became a naturalised British subject, and was made Duke of Edinburgh by the King.BBC History: Video highlights (mobile excluded)
To have fallen in love completely and unreservedly makes all one's personal troubles and even the world's seem small and petty
The Duke of Edinburgh's Award
The Duke of Edinburgh sought to find a role of his own in British society. As royal consort his activities could not have any political connotations.
An opportunity was presented to him by the Gordonstoun headmaster, Kurt Hahn. Extending his positive school experience to others, the prince founded a youth awards programme inspiring young people to challenge themselves physically and mentally and build their confidence through non-academic activities. The Duke of Edinburgh's Award opened to boys in 1956 and to girls two years later. Over the decades it has expanded to 140 countries, with eight million people having taken part.DofE: More about the Duke of Edinburgh's Award today
If you could get young people to succeed in any area of activity, that mere sensation of success would spread over into a lot of others
A passionate conservationist
Prince Philip brought attention to a little-known cause in the 1960s as he turned his attention to the natural world.
From 1961-1982 he served as the first UK president of the World Wildlife Fund, and was its international president for 15 years. He has also used alternative energy sources for his official car, and as the first royal to take an interest in conservation, led the way for Prince Charles (the current UK president of WWF). He remained a keen field sports enthusiast for many years. Over the decades, Prince Philip championed many other causes as patron of 800 organisations.BBC News: Prince says he is no 'bunny hugger'WWF: What does WWF do?
The first TV royal
Keen to publicise youth apprenticeships, Prince Philip became the first member of the Royal Family to be interviewed on television.
In an episode of Panorama shown on the BBC, he spoke to Richard Dimbleby about Commonwealth Technical Training Week. His appearance was considered a great success and it helped to cement a growing public acceptance of the prince. It also showed the Royal Family the potential rewards of dealing with the modern media. But growing press intrusion over the following years put the relationship under great strain.BBC News: Royal Family and the media
Worshipped in Vanuatu
While Prince Philip lived under public gaze as a royal consort in the UK, he was revered as a rather more divine being on a South Pacific island.
Yaohnanen tribal legends prophesied that a descendant of their spirit ancestors would be married to a powerful woman. When they heard of the respect commanded by Queen Elizabeth among colonial officials, they deduced her husband must be the descendant. The Prince Philip Movement was born and was reinforced when some caught a glimpse of him on his 1974 visit. Learning of his followers, Prince Philip sent them a signed photo of himself. In return, they sent him a traditional pig-killing club.Daily Telegraph: Why does tribe think Prince is divine?
I saw him standing on the deck in his white uniform and I knew then that he was the true Messiah
Love and honour
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While the Queen made decisions of state, at home it was her husband who headed the family.
When eldest son and heir-to-the-throne Prince Charles was in his 30s, Prince Philip could not understand his wavering feelings over Lady Diana Spencer, and advised him to either propose or end the courtship. Prince Charles heeded his father’s words, and six months later he wed Diana. As the marriage unravelled in the following decade, Prince Philip tried to initiate a reconciliation between his son and daughter-in-law, writing to Diana and hosting a meeting.BBC News: Video highlights of wedding (mobile excluded)
A protective grandfather
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A year after her divorce, Princess Diana was killed in a car crash, and Prince Philip’s role as head of the family had never been more important.
The young princes, William and Harry, learned of their mother’s death while on holiday with their grandparents at Balmoral in the Scottish Cairngorms. While shielding the boys from the media frenzy, Prince Philip and the Queen were criticised for not appearing in public. But this gave their grandsons some privacy to begin to process the news of their mother’s death. Prince Philip encouraged Prince William to walk alongside him behind his mother’s coffin at her funeral on 6 September 1997.BBC News: Diana funeral video report (mobile excluded)
If you don't walk, I think you'll regret it later - if I walk, will you walk with me?
Devoted companion despite failing health
During the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee celebrations, Prince Philip continued to stand at his wife’s side until ill health forced him to miss some events.
Having accompanied the Queen at the Jubilee Pageant on an 80-minute journey along the Thames, the prince suffered a bladder infection and was forced to miss the Diamond Jubilee concert the next day. He continued to face illness the following year, hospitalised for an abdomen operation, and in 2014 underwent surgery on his right hand. Disclosing his intentions of "winding down" on his 90th birthday, the prince said he was seeking a different balance between his royal duties and personal life.BBC One: Diamond Jubilee concert (mobile excluded)
I reckon I've done my bit so I want to enjoy myself a bit now, with less responsibility... less trying to think of something to say
Retirement from royal duties
Ahead of his 96th birthday in June 2017, Prince Philip announced his retirement from royal duties.
He remains the longest-serving royal consort in British history, and the oldest male member of the Royal Family. Described by the Queen as her "strength and stay", he has stood by her through decades of change. Through his many charitable endeavours, he has fashioned a place for himself in British and Commonwealth life. By the time of his last royal duty in August 2017, he had carried out more than 22,219 solo engagements and more than 630 solo overseas visits.BBC News: Prince announces retirement from royal duties