ConsultantDr Catherine SpoonerLancaster University

Tales of terror

Gothic novels have been scaring us for 250 years. The mid-18th Century - an era of dark, satanic mills at home and nightmarish social upheaval abroad - saw public taste shift from traditional tales of romance and adventure to an appetite for terror.

It is a wide-ranging genre which includes Frankenstein, Dracula and Wuthering Heights. The success of recent novels such as Twilight continue its popularity. This timeline spotlights key moments in the evolution of spine-tingling Gothic stories.


The Castle of Otranto: The first Gothic novel

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Defining the Gothic novel. Clip from Gothic Ghost Novels: The Story of the Ghost Story.

English aristocrat Horace Walpole combines the supernatural and horrific to create the first Gothic novel.

Purporting to be translated from an earlier manuscript, The Castle of Otranto introduces what have become classic Gothic devices, such as a foreign location, a dark and ominous castle and a naïve young woman fleeing from an evil, lustful man. In a direct imitation of Shakespearean tragedy, Walpole introduces comedy to relieve the novel’s most melodramatic moments.

R4 In Our Time: GothicProject Gutenberg: The Castle of Otranto

"[Otranto made] some of us cry a little, and all in general afraid to go to bed o'nights.

Thomas Gray, poet


The Mysteries of Udolpho: The dawn of female Gothic

Mary Evans Picture Library

Illustration from The Mysteries of Udolpho

Illustration from The Mysteries of Udolpho, Ann Radcliffe's Gothic romance.

Ann Radcliffe helps to define what makes a Gothic novel and enjoys massive commercial success.

In her best-known novel, The Mysteries of Udolpho, Radcliffe introduces ‘the explained supernatural’, a technique by which terrifying, apparently supernatural incidents have a logical explanation. Over the course of her previous novels, Radcliffe developed the formula of ‘the female Gothic’, first introduced in The Recess by Sophia Lee. The formula is perfected in Udolpho, and has since become a Gothic norm.

Radio 4: Why has Ann Radcliffe been forgotten?Project Gutenberg: The Mysteries of Udolpho

When the mind has once begun to yield to the weakness of superstition, trifles impress it with the force of conviction.

Ann Radcliffe, The Mysteries of Udolpho


The Monk: Shocking society

British Library

The Monk

The Monk provoked outrage, but met with great success.

Matthew Lewis scandalises the literary world.

Lewis’s novel about the misdeeds of a spoiled priest features incestuous necrophilia, matricide, cannibalism, voyeurism, and a satanic pact – not to mention an incredibly gory finale. It was one of the characters censoring the Bible, however, which most upset its contemporaries – as well as the fact that its teenage author was an MP. The novel, which has been retrospectively classed as ‘Male Gothic', features the genre’s typical themes of a lone male, exiled and an outsider.

British Library: The MonkProject Gutenberg: The Monk

The Monk is a romance, which if a parent saw in the hands of a son or daughter he might reasonably turn pale.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet, on The Monk


The Vampyre: Birth of the tale in English

Furlane Images/Alamy

Villa Diodati

Vlila Diodati, on the shores of Lake Geneva, where Lord Byron's ghost story challenge took place.

On the shores of Lake Geneva, Lord Byron challenges his friends to write a ghost story.

Among them is John Polidori. He writes The Vampyre, the first vampire story to be written in English. The novel introduces the Byronic hero to Gothic. He is the attractive, dangerous outsider, whose struggles with melancholy will feature in numerous classics of the genre. On publication The Vampyre is incorrectly attributed to Byron instead of Polidori, to the annoyance of both writers, but the novel is a success and sparks a craze for similar vampire tales.

How Lord Byron's image inspired modern vampiresProject Gutenberg: The Vampyre


Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus: Raising the dead

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The creation of Mary Shelley’s monster. Clip from Frankenstein: Birth of a Monster.

Lord Byron’s competition produces another Gothic classic: Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus.

Shelley’s story features many Gothic spine-tingling elements, including the macabre horror of raising the dead. However, the novel in which a creature created from disparate body parts is brought to life is often considered to be the first in the science fiction genre. Many believe it to be a warning about the dangers of contemporary science.

Radio 4: The women who terrified the VictoriansThe Strange Affair of FrankensteinFrankenstein: 10 possible meanings

Some of our highest and most reverential feelings receive a shock from the conception on which it turns…

Sir Walter Scott, review of Frankenstein in the Edinburgh Magazine, 1818


Northanger Abbey: Austen plays with Gothic

English School/Bridgeman

Jane Austen

Jane Austen satirises Gothic in Northanger Abbey.

Jane Austen parodies the genre.

While not the first satire of Gothic to be published – The New Monk (1798) and The Heroine (1813) were among a number preceding it – Northanger Abbey is perhaps the most memorable of the genre. The novel, whose lead character is a young girl obsessed by Gothic stories, contains direct references to The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Monk.

BBC History: Jane Austen profile


Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque: Psychological terror

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Writer Denise Mina on why Poe was a literary pioneer. Clip from: Edgar Allan Poe: Love, Death and Women.

Edgar Allan Poe’s collection of previously published short stories is published.

While the tales feature many traditionally frightening Gothic themes, Poe’s characters also suffer psychological terror - “terror of the soul”. The collection includes Poe’s famous story ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’, which charts the descent of Roderick Usher into madness through fear. Other stories in the collection feature a collection of madmen and unreliable narrators.

Who is Edgar Allan Poe?

I know not how it was-but, with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit.

Narrator, The Fall of the House of Usher, 1839


Wuthering Heights: Gothic close to home

Wuthering Heights

Emily Bronte published the novel under the male pseudonym of Ellis Bell.

Emily Bronte transports Gothic to the wild and dangerous Yorkshire moors.

The classic romantic novel has become synonymous with the idea of the Female Gothic: where women are trapped in a domestic space and dominated by men. In addition it includes many other Gothic traits: stories told within stories, the supernatural, the tyrannical ‘villain’, and Wuthering Heights itself, the imposing building in which much of the story is set. In the character of Heathcliff, Bronte creates the ultimate Byronic hero.

The Reader's Guide to Wuthering HeightsThe Bronte BusinessBBC History: The Bronte sisters

You said I killed you-haunt me, then! Be with me always-take any form-drive me mad! Only do not leave me in this abyss, where I cannot find you!

Heathcliff, Wuthering Heights, 1847


Carmilla: The female vampire

Illustration of Carmilla, by DH Friston

Illustration by DH Friston accompanying the original publication of Carmilla.

Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s story establishes the formula for the female vampire.

Le Fanu’s tale of the mysterious Carmilla owes a debt to Samuel Coleridge’s unfinished poem Christabel, but becomes influential in its own right, second only to Dracula in terms of popular vampire characters. Le Fanu draws on emerging ideas about female sexuality to depict a vampire whose lesbian inclinations are surprisingly explicit by Victorian standards. Carmilla becomes the model for female vampires in film, with variations of the character appearing in Hammer horrors, among others.

Project Gutenberg: Carmilla

The image of Carmilla returns to mind […] sometimes the playful, languid, beautiful girl; sometimes the writhing fiend I saw in the ruined church.

Laura, Carmilla, 1871


The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: Anticipating Freud

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Lucy Worsley reveals how the story of Jekyll and Hyde impacted on the hunt for Jack the Ripper. Clip from A Very British Murder.

Robert Louis Stevenson explores the nature of good and evil.

A literary success in the Victorian era, the tale has lived on and like Frankenstein and Dracula its characters have transcended the original text to become a modern myth. The novel is also the fullest articulation of the important Gothic theme of the double: the contrast between good and evil in people or places. Stevenson anticipates the ideas of Sigmund Freud, whose first psychoanalytic studies were to be published just five years later.

Ian Rankin Investigates: Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde

[Stevenson] has weighed his words and turned his sentences so as to sustain and excite throughout the sense of mystery and horror.

Review, The Times, 1886


Dracula: The vampire’s vampire lands at Whitby

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How Dracula preyed on Victorian fears. Clip from Why They Bite.

Bram Stoker’s iconic vampire is introduced.

While Richard Marsh’s horror novel The Beetle was the bigger seller in 1897, it is Stoker’s story that has captured and engaged the public’s imagination. The tale of the Transylvanian count transferred well to screen, helping to cement the myth of Dracula and, in turn, dominating our idea of how male vampires look and behave.

The Dracula BusinessWhitby's Dracula connections

As the Count leaned over me and his hands touched me, I could not repress a shudder...

Jonathan Harker, Dracula, 1897


Gormenghast trilogy: Stylised Gothic

Titus Groan

The tale of Titus Groan marked the opening stage of the Gormenghast trilogy.

Mervyn Peake publishes Titus Groan, later followed by Gormenghast and Titus Alone.

Peake's epic trilogy for adults introduces the castle-kingdom of Gormenghast, an exaggerated, baroque, stylised world that merges Gothic and fantasy literature inspiring future generations of children's writers.

In Pictures: The art of GormenghastGormenghast official website


'Salem's Lot: King Gothic


Stephen King

Stephen King reinvigorated the vampire tale with 'Salem's Lot.

Stephen King creates the Gothic horror blockbuster.

King’s vampire story ‘Salem’s Lot is a critical and popular success. The author is lauded for breathing new life into the traditional vampire story by incorporating modern fears and realistic settings. Two years later his supernatural horror The Shining is published. A film adaptation of the story becomes a classic Hollywood horror.

Desert Island Discs: Stephen King About Stephen King


Interview with the Vampire: Sensitive blood-suckers

WENN Ltd/Alamy

Anne Rice

Author Anne Rice speaking at Chicago Comic Con in 2012.

Anne Rice establishes the idea of the ‘sympathetic vampire'.

Rice's vampire couple, introspective, guilt-ridden narrator Louis and charismatic, amoral anti-hero Lestat are far removed from the traditional idea of the vampire. This paves the way for the brooding romantic vampire found in modern popular culture, such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood and Stephanie Meyer’s Twilight novels. These achieve great popular success, reigniting interest in vampire tales and introducing Gothic to a new audience.

How vampires got all touchy-feelyAbout Anne Rice

Rice's vampires are […] lonely, prisoners of circumstance, compulsive sinners, full of self-loathing and doubt. They are, in short, Everyman Eternal.

Susan Ferraro, New York Times, 1990


The Bloody Chamber: Feminist Gothic


Angela Carter

Angela Carter's collection of stories defines contemporary Gothic in the UK.

Angela Carter rewrites fairy tales from a feminist perspective.

Carter's collection of short stories is perhaps the most famous example of feminist Gothic. Her retelling of traditional children’s stories exposes some of the major Gothic themes, including incest, violence and the objectification of women.

The Guardian classics: The Bloody ChamberThe Scotsman: Why The Bloody Chamber still bites


House of Leaves: 21st Century Gothic

House of Leaves

House of Leaves is a complex and experimental text.

Mark Z Danielewski’s cult 700-page novel redefines Gothic for the twenty-first century.

The novel brings many traditional elements of Gothic together, while turning the process of reading itself into a labyrinth with convoluted footnotes, different typefaces, elaborate arrangements of text on the page, and passages in code, mirror writing, musical notation and Braille.

The Guardian: House of Leaves review